Methods of Training: On-the-Job Methods and Off-the-Job Methods
Meaning of training
Training is a process by which the skills, talents, and capabilities of the employees of an organization are increased. Training helps employees to grasp new skills and utilize the knowledge provided. Training is not only required by the new employees, but it is also necessary for the current staff. Training is not a one-time job. It is a continuous process that helps increase the performance of the employees and prepares them for their new job or keeps them updated on their present job. It is a short-term systematic approach that guides the employees and teaches them how to handle the given responsibilities. Training employees is essential as they need to be updated on technological advances and the latest development.
There are several methods of training. These are mainly categorized into two groups: On-the-Job and Off-the-Job methods. On-the-Job methods are generally the methods that are applied to the workplace during the working of the employee. It means learning while working. Off-the-Job methods refer to the methods that are used away from the workplace. It means learning before working.
Following are the On-The-Job methods:
- Apprenticeship programs: Apprenticeship programs place the trainee under the guidance of well-trained personnel. These programs are designed to obtain skills and knowledge of higher levels. Such programs are necessary for people entering skilled jobs, like, plumbers, electricians, etc. These apprentices are trainees who enter into these programs and invest some time working under the guidance of a professional or a trainer. The trainees are required to spend a specified time here where both fast and slow learners are trained together. The slow learners may be provided with additional training.
- Coaching: In this method, the trainer who is known as the coach guides and instructs the trainee. The coach or the trainer sets the required goals with a mutual discussion, advises on how to achieve those goals, analyzes the trainees’ progress from time to time, and suggests changes necessary in the attitude and performance. The trainee works under the senior manager and the manager takes full responsibility for the employees’ training. The training is done to take the place of the senior manager so that he can be freed from some of his duties. This is also a chance for the trainee to learn about his job and the working of the organization.
- Internship Training: Internship training is a cooperation of educational institutions and business firms. These trainings are generally a joint program. The candidates who are selected continue to pursue their studies regularly and also work in a factory or office to gain the practical knowledge and skills required for a job.
- Job Rotation: Job rotation involves shifting trainees from one job to another or from one department to another. This allows the trainee to gain a better understanding of the working of the organization and all its parts. The rotation enables the trainee to indulge in all kinds of operations from different departments, and also allows them to enhance their knowledge and skills. This is also beneficial for the trainees, as they get to interact with other employees, which creates cooperation among different departments. Such training of employees makes it easier for the organization at the time of promotions, replacements, or transfers.
Following are the Off-the-Job methods:
- Class Room Lectures or Conferences: The lecture or conference method is generally used for conveying specific information, rules, procedures, or methods. The use of audio-visual means makes a formal classroom presentation more interesting along with increasing the memory and proving an instrument for clearing difficulties or doubts.
- Films: Films supply information and show a definite display of skills that are not easily represented by other techniques. The use of films together with conference discussion is a very effective method in most cases.
- Case Study: Case studies are the actual experiences faced by the organization. They display the events that the managers have faced in real life. The trainees study these cases and analyze them sincerely to find out the problems and their causes, come up with possible solutions, select the best solution and at last, implement it.
- Computer Modelling: It encourages the work environment by developing a computer program that copies a few of the realities of the job and enables learning to take place securely. It also allows the organization to see the mistakes that may occur and how much they would cost. This saves the organization from making mistakes in such situations in real life.
- Vestibule Training: In vestibule training, the employees are given training on the equipment that they will be using during their jobs. Though the training is conducted away from the actual workplace, the trainees are provided with a work environment in which all the pieces of equipment, files, and materials to be used are present. This method is usually used when the employees need to handle advanced or complex equipment and machinery.
- Programmed Instruction: Such a method includes a predetermined and proposed acquisition of some definite skills or general knowledge. In this method, the information is divided into meaningful units, and these units are arranged in a proper way to form a logical and consecutive learning bundle or collection, i.e., from simple to complex. The trainee is required to answer the questions asked or by filling in the blanks.