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Matrix in R – Arithmetic Operations
  • Last Updated : 26 Mar, 2021

Arithmetic operations include addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication(*), division (/) and modulus(%). In this article we are going to see the matrix creation and arithmetic operations on the matrices in R programming language.

Approach

  • Create first matrix

Syntax:

matrix_name <- matrix(data , nrow = value, ncol = value) .

Parameters:

  • data=includes a list/vector of elements passed as data to an matrix.
  • nrow= nrow represent the number of  rows  specified.
  • ncol= ncol represent the number of  columns  specified.
  • Create second matrix
  • Apply operation between these matrices
  • Display result

Addition

Addition yields the sum of the two matrices. Operator used- “+”



Example:

R




# create a vector of elements 
vector1=c(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16)
  
# create a matrix with 4* 4 by passing tgis vector1
matrix1 <- matrix(vector1, nrow = 4, ncol = 4)  
  
# display matrix
print(matrix1)
  
# create a vector of elements 
vector2=c(1,2,3,2,4,5,6,3,4,1,2,7,8,9,4,5)
  
# create a matrix with 4* 4 by passing  vector2
matrix2 <- matrix(vector2, nrow = 4, ncol = 4)  
  
# display matrix
print(matrix2)
  
# add matrices
print(matrix1+matrix2)

Output:

Subtraction

Subtraction yields the difference between two matrices. The operator used: “-“.

Example:

R




# create a vector of elements 
vector1=c(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16)
  
# create a matrix with 4* 4 by passing tgis vector1
matrix1 <- matrix(vector1, nrow = 4, ncol = 4)  
  
# display matrix
print(matrix1)
  
# create a vector of elements 
vector2=c(1,2,3,2,4,5,6,3,4,1,2,7,8,9,4,5)
  
# create a matrix with 4* 4 by passing  vector2
matrix2 <- matrix(vector2, nrow = 4, ncol = 4)  
  
# display matrix
print(matrix2)
print(" subtraction result")
  
# subtract matrices
print(matrix1-matrix2)

Output:



Multiplication

Multiplication results in the multiplication of the elements in a matrix. The operator used: “*”

Example:

R




# create a vector of elements 
vector1=c(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16)
  
# create a matrix with 4* 4 by passing tgis vector1
matrix1 <- matrix(vector1, nrow = 4, ncol = 4)  
  
# display matrix
print(matrix1)
  
# create a vector of elements 
vector2=c(1,2,3,2,4,5,6,3,4,1,2,7,8,9,4,5)
  
# create a matrix with 4* 4 by passing  vector2
matrix2 <- matrix(vector2, nrow = 4, ncol = 4)  
  
# display matrix
print(matrix2)
print(" multiplication result")
  
# multiply matrices
print(matrix1*matrix2)

Output:

Division

Division is used to divide element by element in the matrices. The operator used : “/”

Example:

R




# create a vector of elements 
vector1=c(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16)
  
# create a matrix with 4* 4 by passing tgis vector1
matrix1 <- matrix(vector1, nrow = 4, ncol = 4)  
  
# display matrix
print(matrix1)
  
# create a vector of elements 
vector2=c(1,2,3,2,4,5,6,3,4,1,2,7,8,9,4,5)
  
# create a matrix with 4* 4 by passing  vector2
matrix2 <- matrix(vector2, nrow = 4, ncol = 4)  
  
# display matrix
print(matrix2)
print(" Division result")
  
# divide the matrices
print(matrix1/matrix2)

Output:

Modulo operation

Modulo returns the remainder of the elements in a matrix. The operator used: %%. The main difference between division and modulo operator is that division returns quotient and modulo returns remainder.

Example:

R




# create a vector of elements 
vector1=c(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16)
  
# create a matrix with 4* 4 by passing tgis vector1
matrix1 <- matrix(vector1, nrow = 4, ncol = 4)  
  
# display matrix
print(matrix1)
  
# create a vector of elements 
vector2=c(1,2,3,2,4,5,6,3,4,1,2,7,8,9,4,5)
  
# create a matrix with 4* 4 by passing  vector2
matrix2 <- matrix(vector2, nrow = 4, ncol = 4)  
  
# display matrix
print(matrix2)
print(" modulo result")
  
print(matrix1%%matrix2)

Output:

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