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Make all characters in given string equal by changing vowel into consonant and vice versa

  • Last Updated : 29 Nov, 2021

Given a string str containing lowercase characters, the task is to find the minimum number of operations needed to make all the characters equal. In one operation, any consonant can be converted to any vowel or any vowel can be converted to any consonant.

Examples:

Input: str = “banana”
Output: 3
Explanation: Convert all consonants to Vowel character A

Input: str = “hexon”
Output: 5
Explanation: Convert E to O first then all the consonants to Alphabet O

 

Approach: The basic catch here is that:

  • The operations required to change a consonant to another consonant or a vowel to another vowel: 2 Operation
  • The operation required to change a consonant to a vowel or a vowel to consonant: 1 Operation

So, it’s clear that it is more economical to change a consonant to a vowel or a vowel to a consonant than changing a consonant to another consonant or a vowel to another vowel.

Now to solve this question, follow the steps below:

  1. Calculate the frequency of all the characters and find the consonant and vowels with the highest frequency, let’s say A and B respectively.
  2. Try to change all the characters to A and B, and store the operations required in variables minA and minB respectively.
  3. Minimum of minA and minB is the answer to this problem.

Below is the implementation of the above approach.

C++




// C++ program for the above approach
 
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Function to return the minimum operations
// required to make all string characters equal
int minOperations(string str)
{
    int n = str.size();
 
    // Vector to store the
    // frequency of all characters
    vector<int> freq(26, 0);
 
    for (auto x : str) {
        freq[x - 'a']++;
    }
 
    int mxA = INT_MIN, mxB = INT_MIN;
 
    // Variables to store
    // consonant and vowel
    // with highest frequency
    char A, B;
 
    vector<char> vowels
        = { 'a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u' };
 
    for (int i = 0; i < 26; ++i) {
        bool isVowel = 0;
        for (auto x : vowels) {
            if ('a' + i == x) {
                isVowel = 1;
                break;
            }
        }
 
        // If current character is a vowel
        if (isVowel) {
            if (mxB < freq[i]) {
                mxB = freq[i];
                B = 'a' + i;
            }
        }
 
        // If currenct character is a consonant
        else {
            if (mxA < freq[i]) {
                mxA = freq[i];
                A = 'a' + i;
            }
        }
    }
 
    int minA = 0, minB = 0;
    for (auto x : str) {
        bool isVowel = 0;
        for (auto y : vowels) {
            if (x == y) {
                isVowel = 1;
                break;
            }
        }
 
        // If current character is a vowel
        if (isVowel) {
            if (x != B) {
                minB += 2;
            }
            minA += 1;
        }
 
        // If currenct character is a
        // consonant
        else {
            if (x != A) {
                minA += 2;
            }
            minB += 1;
        }
    }
 
    // If no vowel exists
    if (mxB == INT_MIN) {
        return minA;
    }
 
    // If no consonant exists
    if (mxA == INT_MIN) {
        return minB;
    }
 
    // Returning minimum of the two
    return min(minA, minB);
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
    string str = "hexon";
    cout << minOperations(str);
}

Java




// Java program for the above approach
import java.util.*;
public class GFG {
 
    // Function to return the minimum operations
    // required to make all string characters equal
    static int minOperations(String str)
    {
        int n = str.length();
 
        // Vector to store the
        // frequency of all characters
        char[] freq = new char[26];
 
        for(char x : str.toCharArray()) { freq[x - 'a']++; }
 
        int mxA = Integer.MIN_VALUE, mxB = Integer.MIN_VALUE;
 
        // Variables to store
        // consonant and vowel
        // with highest frequency
        char A = ' ', B = ' ';
 
        char[] vowels = { 'a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u' };
 
        for (int i = 0; i < 26; ++i) {
            int isVowel = 0;
            for(char x : vowels)
            {
                if ('a' + i == x) {
                    isVowel = 1;
                    break;
                }
            }
 
            // If current character is a vowel
            if (isVowel > 0) {
                if (mxB < freq[i]) {
                    mxB = freq[i];
                    B = (char)(97 + i);
                }
            }
 
            // If currenct character is a consonant
            else {
                if (mxA < freq[i]) {
                    mxA = freq[i];
                    A = (char)(97 + i);
                }
            }
        }
 
        int minA = 0, minB = 0;
        for(char x : str.toCharArray())
        {
            int isVowel = 0;
            for(char y : vowels)
            {
                if (x == y) {
                    isVowel = 1;
                    break;
                }
            }
 
            // If current character is a vowel
            if (isVowel > 0) {
                if (x != B) {
                    minB += 2;
                }
                minA += 1;
            }
 
            // If currenct character is a
            // consonant
            else {
                if (x != A) {
                    minA += 2;
                }
                minB += 1;
            }
        }
 
        // If no vowel exists
        if (mxB == Integer.MIN_VALUE) {
            return minA;
        }
 
        // If no consonant exists
        if (mxA == Integer.MIN_VALUE) {
            return minB;
        }
 
        // Returning minimum of the two
        return Math.min(minA, minB);
    }
 
    // Driver Code
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        String str = "hexon";
        System.out.println(minOperations(str));
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by Samim Hossain Mondal.

Python3




# python program for the above approach
INT_MIN = -2147483647 - 1
 
# Function to return the minimum operations
# required to make all string characters equal
def minOperations(str):
 
    n = len(str)
 
    # Vector to store the
    # frequency of all characters
    freq = [0 for _ in range(26)]
 
    for x in str:
        freq[ord(x) - ord('a')] += 1
 
    mxA = INT_MIN
    mxB = INT_MIN
 
    # Variables to store
    # consonant and vowel
    # with highest frequency
    A = ''
    B = ''
 
    vowels = ['a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u']
 
    for i in range(0, 26):
        isVowel = 0
 
        for x in vowels:
            if (ord('a') + i == ord(x)):
                isVowel = 1
                break
 
        # If current character is a vowel
        if (isVowel):
            if (mxB < freq[i]):
                mxB = freq[i]
                B = chr(ord('a') + i)
 
        # If currenct character is a consonant
        else:
            if (mxA < freq[i]):
                mxA = freq[i]
                A = chr(ord('a') + i)
 
    minA = 0
    minB = 0
    for x in str:
        isVowel = 0
        for y in vowels:
            if (x == y):
                isVowel = 1
                break
 
        # If current character is a vowel
        if (isVowel):
            if (x != B):
                minB += 2
            minA += 1
 
            # If currenct character is a
            # consonant
        else:
            if (x != A):
                minA += 2
            minB += 1
 
        # If no vowel exists
    if (mxB == INT_MIN):
        return minA
 
        # If no consonant exists
    if (mxA == INT_MIN):
        return minB
 
        # Returning minimum of the two
    return min(minA, minB)
 
# Driver Code
if __name__ == "__main__":
 
    str = "hexon"
    print(minOperations(str))
 
    # This code is contributed by rakeshsahni

C#




// C# program for the above approach
using System;
class GFG {
 
    // Function to return the minimum operations
    // required to make all string characters equal
    static int minOperations(string str)
    {
        int n = str.Length;
 
        // Vector to store the
        // frequency of all characters
        char[] freq = new char[26];
 
        foreach(char x in str) { freq[x - 'a']++; }
 
        int mxA = Int32.MinValue, mxB = Int32.MinValue;
 
        // Variables to store
        // consonant and vowel
        // with highest frequency
        char A = ' ', B = ' ';
 
        char[] vowels = { 'a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u' };
 
        for (int i = 0; i < 26; ++i) {
            int isVowel = 0;
            foreach(char x in vowels)
            {
                if ('a' + i == x) {
                    isVowel = 1;
                    break;
                }
            }
 
            // If current character is a vowel
            if (isVowel > 0) {
                if (mxB < freq[i]) {
                    mxB = freq[i];
                    B = (char)(97 + i);
                }
            }
 
            // If currenct character is a consonant
            else {
                if (mxA < freq[i]) {
                    mxA = freq[i];
                    A = (char)(97 + i);
                }
            }
        }
 
        int minA = 0, minB = 0;
        foreach(char x in str)
        {
            int isVowel = 0;
            foreach(char y in vowels)
            {
                if (x == y) {
                    isVowel = 1;
                    break;
                }
            }
 
            // If current character is a vowel
            if (isVowel > 0) {
                if (x != B) {
                    minB += 2;
                }
                minA += 1;
            }
 
            // If currenct character is a
            // consonant
            else {
                if (x != A) {
                    minA += 2;
                }
                minB += 1;
            }
        }
 
        // If no vowel exists
        if (mxB == Int32.MinValue) {
            return minA;
        }
 
        // If no consonant exists
        if (mxA == Int32.MinValue) {
            return minB;
        }
 
        // Returning minimum of the two
        return Math.Min(minA, minB);
    }
 
    // Driver Code
    public static void Main()
    {
        string str = "hexon";
        Console.WriteLine(minOperations(str));
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by ukasp.

Javascript




<script>
// Javascript program for the above approach
 
// Function to return the minimum operations
// required to make all string characters equal
function minOperations(str) {
  let n = str.length;
 
  // Vector to store the
  // frequency of all characters
  let freq = new Array(26).fill(0);
 
  for (x of str) {
    freq[x.charCodeAt(0) - 'a'.charCodeAt(0)]++;
  }
 
  let mxA = Number.MIN_SAFE_INTEGER, mxB = Number.MIN_SAFE_INTEGER;
 
  // Variables to store
  // consonant and vowel
  // with highest frequency
  let A = "", B = "";
 
  let vowels = ['a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u'];
 
  for (let i = 0; i < 26; ++i) {
    let isVowel = 0;
    for (x of vowels) {
      if ('a'.charCodeAt(0) + i == x.charCodeAt(0)) {
        isVowel = 1;
        break;
      }
    }
 
    // If current character is a vowel
    if (isVowel) {
      if (mxB < freq[i]) {
        mxB = freq[i];
        B = String.fromCharCode('a'.charCodeAt(0) + i);
      }
    }
 
    // If currenct character is a consonant
    else {
      if (mxA < freq[i]) {
        mxA = freq[i];
        A = String.fromCharCode('a'.charCodeAt(0) + i);
      }
    }
  }
 
  let minA = 0, minB = 0;
  for (x of str) {
    let isVowel = 0;
    for (y of vowels) {
      if (x == y) {
        isVowel = 1;
        break;
      }
    }
 
    // If current character is a vowel
    if (isVowel) {
      if (x != B) {
        minB += 2;
      }
      minA += 1;
    }
 
    // If currenct character is a
    // consonant
    else {
      if (x != A) {
        minA += 2;
      }
      minB += 1;
    }
  }
 
  // If no vowel exists
  if (mxB == Number.MIN_SAFE_INTEGER) {
    return minA;
  }
 
  // If no consonant exists
  if (mxA == Number.MIN_SAFE_INTEGER) {
    return minB;
  }
 
  // Returning minimum of the two
  return Math.min(minA, minB);
}
 
// Driver Cod
 
let str = "hexon";
document.write(minOperations(str))
 
// This code is contributed by saurabh_jaiswal.
</script>
Output
5

Time Complexity: O(N)
Auxiliary Space: O(1)


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