# Longest subsequence having difference atmost K

Given a string **S** of length **N** and an integer **K**, the task is to find the length of longest sub-sequence such that the difference between the ASCII values of adjacent characters in the subsequence is not more than K.

**Examples:**

Input:N = 7, K = 2, S = "afcbedg"Output:4Explanation:Longest special sequence present in "afcbedg" is a, c, b, d. It is special because |a - c| <= 2, |c - b| <= 2 and | b-d| <= 2Input:N = 13, K = 3, S = "geeksforgeeks"Output:7

**Naive approach:** A brute force solution is to generate all the possible subsequences of various lengths and compute the maximum length of the valid subsequence. The time complexity will be exponential.

**Efficient Approach:** An efficient approach is to use the concept **Dynamic Programming**

- Create an array
**dp**of 0’s with size equal to length of string. - Create a supporting array
**max_length**with 0’s of size 26. - Iterate the string character by character and for each character determine the upper and lower bounds.
- Iterate nested loop in the range of lower and upper bounds.
- Fill the dp array with the maximum value between current
**dp**indices and current max_length indices+1. - Fill the max_length array with the maximum value between current
**dp**indices and current max_length indices. - Longest sub sequence length is the maximum value in
**dp**array. - Let us consider an example:

input string

sis “afcbedg” andkis 2

- for 1st iteration value of i is ‘a’ and range of j is (0, 2)

and current dp = [1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]- for 2nd iteration value of i is ‘f’ and range of j is (3, 7)

and current dp = [1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]- for 3rd iteration value of i is ‘c’ and range of j is (0, 4)

and current dp = [1, 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0]- for 4th iteration value of i is ‘b’ and range of j is (0, 3)

and current dp = [1, 1, 2, 3, 0, 0, 0]- for 5th iteration value of i is ‘e’ and range of j is (2, 6)

and current dp = [1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 0, 0]- for 6th iteration value of i is ‘d’ and range of j is (1, 5)

and current dp = [1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 0]- for 7th iteration value of i is ‘g’ and range of j is (4, 8)

and current dp = [1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4]longest length is the maximum value in dp so maximum length is 4

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

## C++

`// C++ program for the above approach` `#include <bits/stdc++.h>` `using` `namespace` `std;` `// Function to find` `// the longest Special Sequence` `int` `longest_subseq(` `int` `n, ` `int` `k, string s)` `{` ` ` `// Creating a list with` ` ` `// all 0's of size` ` ` `// equal to the length of string` ` ` `vector<` `int` `> dp(n, 0);` ` ` `// Supporting list with` ` ` `// all 0's of size 26 since` ` ` `// the given string consists` ` ` `// of only lower case alphabets` ` ` `int` `max_length[26] = {0};` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = 0; i < n; i++)` ` ` `{` ` ` `// Converting the ascii value to` ` ` `// list indices` ` ` `int` `curr = s[i] - ` `'a'` `;` ` ` ` ` `// Determining the lower bound` ` ` `int` `lower = max(0, curr - k);` ` ` ` ` `// Determining the upper bound` ` ` `int` `upper = min(25, curr + k);` ` ` ` ` `// Filling the dp array with values` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `j = lower; j < upper + 1; j++)` ` ` `{` ` ` `dp[i] = max(dp[i], max_length[j] + 1);` ` ` `}` ` ` `//Filling the max_length array with max` ` ` `//length of subsequence till now` ` ` `max_length[curr] = max(dp[i], max_length[curr]);` ` ` `}` ` ` `int` `ans = 0;` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i:dp) ans = max(i, ans);` ` ` `// return the max length of subsequence` ` ` `return` `ans;` `}` `// Driver Code` `int` `main()` `{` ` ` `string s = ` `"geeksforgeeks"` `;` ` ` `int` `n = s.size();` ` ` `int` `k = 3;` ` ` `cout << (longest_subseq(n, k, s));` ` ` `return` `0;` `}` `// This code is contributed by Mohit Kumar` |

## Java

`// Java program for the above approach` `class` `GFG` `{` `// Function to find` `// the longest Special Sequence` `static` `int` `longest_subseq(` `int` `n, ` `int` `k, String s)` `{` ` ` `// Creating a list with` ` ` `// all 0's of size` ` ` `// equal to the length of String` ` ` `int` `[]dp = ` `new` `int` `[n];` ` ` `// Supporting list with` ` ` `// all 0's of size 26 since` ` ` `// the given String consists` ` ` `// of only lower case alphabets` ` ` `int` `[]max_length = ` `new` `int` `[` `26` `];` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = ` `0` `; i < n; i++)` ` ` `{` ` ` `// Converting the ascii value to` ` ` `// list indices` ` ` `int` `curr = s.charAt(i) - ` `'a'` `;` ` ` ` ` `// Determining the lower bound` ` ` `int` `lower = Math.max(` `0` `, curr - k);` ` ` ` ` `// Determining the upper bound` ` ` `int` `upper = Math.min(` `25` `, curr + k);` ` ` ` ` `// Filling the dp array with values` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `j = lower; j < upper + ` `1` `; j++)` ` ` `{` ` ` `dp[i] = Math.max(dp[i], max_length[j] + ` `1` `);` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// Filling the max_length array with max` ` ` `// length of subsequence till now` ` ` `max_length[curr] = Math.max(dp[i], max_length[curr]);` ` ` `}` ` ` `int` `ans = ` `0` `;` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i:dp) ans = Math.max(i, ans);` ` ` `// return the max length of subsequence` ` ` `return` `ans;` `}` `// Driver Code` `public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)` `{` ` ` `String s = ` `"geeksforgeeks"` `;` ` ` `int` `n = s.length();` ` ` `int` `k = ` `3` `;` ` ` `System.out.print(longest_subseq(n, k, s));` `}` `}` `// This code is contributed by 29AjayKumar` |

## Python3

`# Function to find` `# the longest Special Sequence` `def` `longest_subseq(n, k, s):` ` ` ` ` `# Creating a list with` ` ` `# all 0's of size` ` ` `# equal to the length of string` ` ` `dp ` `=` `[` `0` `] ` `*` `n` ` ` ` ` `# Supporting list with` ` ` `# all 0's of size 26 since` ` ` `# the given string consists` ` ` `# of only lower case alphabets` ` ` `max_length ` `=` `[` `0` `] ` `*` `26` ` ` `for` `i ` `in` `range` `(n):` ` ` `# Converting the ascii value to` ` ` `# list indices` ` ` `curr ` `=` `ord` `(s[i]) ` `-` `ord` `(` `'a'` `)` ` ` `# Determining the lower bound` ` ` `lower ` `=` `max` `(` `0` `, curr ` `-` `k)` ` ` `# Determining the upper bound` ` ` `upper ` `=` `min` `(` `25` `, curr ` `+` `k)` ` ` `# Filling the dp array with values` ` ` `for` `j ` `in` `range` `(lower, upper ` `+` `1` `):` ` ` `dp[i] ` `=` `max` `(dp[i], max_length[j]` `+` `1` `)` ` ` `# Filling the max_length array with max` ` ` `# length of subsequence till now` ` ` `max_length[curr] ` `=` `max` `(dp[i], max_length[curr])` ` ` `# return the max length of subsequence` ` ` `return` `max` `(dp)` `# driver code` `def` `main():` ` ` `s ` `=` `"geeksforgeeks"` ` ` `n ` `=` `len` `(s)` ` ` `k ` `=` `3` ` ` `print` `(longest_subseq(n, k, s))` `main()` |

## C#

`// C# program for the above approach` `using` `System;` `class` `GFG` `{` `// Function to find` `// the longest Special Sequence` `static` `int` `longest_subseq(` `int` `n, ` `int` `k, String s)` `{` ` ` `// Creating a list with` ` ` `// all 0's of size` ` ` `// equal to the length of String` ` ` `int` `[]dp = ` `new` `int` `[n];` ` ` `// Supporting list with` ` ` `// all 0's of size 26 since` ` ` `// the given String consists` ` ` `// of only lower case alphabets` ` ` `int` `[]max_length = ` `new` `int` `[26];` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = 0; i < n; i++)` ` ` `{` ` ` `// Converting the ascii value to` ` ` `// list indices` ` ` `int` `curr = s[i] - ` `'a'` `;` ` ` ` ` `// Determining the lower bound` ` ` `int` `lower = Math.Max(0, curr - k);` ` ` ` ` `// Determining the upper bound` ` ` `int` `upper = Math.Min(25, curr + k);` ` ` ` ` `// Filling the dp array with values` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `j = lower; j < upper + 1; j++)` ` ` `{` ` ` `dp[i] = Math.Max(dp[i], max_length[j] + 1);` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// Filling the max_length array with max` ` ` `// length of subsequence till now` ` ` `max_length[curr] = Math.Max(dp[i], max_length[curr]);` ` ` `}` ` ` `int` `ans = 0;` ` ` `foreach` `(` `int` `i ` `in` `dp) ans = Math.Max(i, ans);` ` ` `// return the max length of subsequence` ` ` `return` `ans;` `}` `// Driver Code` `public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args)` `{` ` ` `String s = ` `"geeksforgeeks"` `;` ` ` `int` `n = s.Length;` ` ` `int` `k = 3;` ` ` `Console.Write(longest_subseq(n, k, s));` `}` `}` `// This code is contributed by Rajput-Ji` |

## Javascript

`<script>` `// Javascript program for the above approach` `// Function to find` `// the longest Special Sequence` `function` `longest_subseq(n, k, s)` `{` ` ` `// Creating a list with` ` ` `// all 0's of size` ` ` `// equal to the length of String` ` ` `let dp = ` `new` `Array(n);` ` ` ` ` `// Supporting list with` ` ` `// all 0's of size 26 since` ` ` `// the given String consists` ` ` `// of only lower case alphabets` ` ` `let max_length = ` `new` `Array(26);` ` ` ` ` `for` `(let i = 0; i < 26; i++)` ` ` `{` ` ` `max_length[i] = 0;` ` ` `dp[i] = 0;` ` ` `}` ` ` `for` `(let i = 0; i < n; i++)` ` ` `{` ` ` ` ` `// Converting the ascii value to` ` ` `// list indices` ` ` `let curr = s[i].charCodeAt(0) - ` `'a'` `.charCodeAt(0);` ` ` ` ` `// Determining the lower bound` ` ` `let lower = Math.max(0, curr - k);` ` ` ` ` `// Determining the upper bound` ` ` `let upper = Math.min(25, curr + k);` ` ` ` ` `// Filling the dp array with values` ` ` `for` `(let j = lower; j < upper + 1; j++)` ` ` `{` ` ` `dp[i] = Math.max(dp[i], max_length[j] + 1);` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// Filling the max_length array with max` ` ` `// length of subsequence till now` ` ` `max_length[curr] = Math.max(dp[i], max_length[curr]);` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `let ans = 0;` ` ` `ans = Math.max(...dp)` ` ` ` ` `// return the max length of subsequence` ` ` `return` `ans;` `}` `// Driver Code` `let s = ` `"geeksforgeeks"` `;` `let n = s.length;` `let k = 3;` `document.write(longest_subseq(n, k, s));` `// This code is contributed by unknown2108` `</script>` |

**Output:**

7

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