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Lithium Hydroxide Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 15 Jun, 2022
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Lithium gets its name from “lithos”. It is the Greek word used for stone. Lithium (Li), alkali metal machine of the periodic table (Group1) of a chemical element. Lithium is a type of metal that is mainly used in grains and vegetables for diet purposes. Its various forms are used in supplements. Lithium is the lightest metal of the solid element. The boiling point and oxidation state of lithium are 1,342°C and +1. It is an s-block element. Lithium is used in rechargeable batteries for mobile phones, laptops, digital cameras, and electric vehicles. 

Hydroxide is a chemical compound that contains one or more groups. It consists of hydrogen and an oxygen atom which are together by a covalent bond. Hydrogen carries a negative electric charge. It is used in food preservatives. 

Lithium Hydroxide 

It is an inorganic compound having the formula LiOH.It is an alkali metal hydroxide. Lithium hydroxide, the solution appears like a clear white liquid. It is very harmful when not used with safety precautions. It may cause irritation to the eyes, and skin of our body. It is used to make other chemicals. It is a strong base and the weakest known alkali metal hydroxide.

The formula of Lithium Hydroxide 

The chemical and molecular formula of Lithium Hydroxide is LiOH and the molar mass of Lithium Hydroxide is 23.91 g/mol. LiOH exists in two forms anhydrate form and a monohydrate form. It is only one alkali hydroxide that does not present Polymorphism.

Structure of Lithium Hydroxide 

The structure of lithium hydroxide contains a lithium-ion, an oxygen atom, and a hydrogen atom. It is highly reactive in nature, it can react with other compounds to form other compounds.


Preparation of Lithium Hydroxide

When we react lithium  with water then it gives lithium Hydroxide and the following reaction is here 

 H2O +    Li2+→  LiOH  

The maximum amount of the lithium hydroxide is produced when the  reaction between calcium hydroxide and lithium carbonate happened which produces lithium hydroxide and calcium carbonate:

Ca(OH) + Li2CO3 → CaCo3 + 2LiOH

Physical Properties of LiOH 

  1.  Lithium hydroxide is Odourless in nature. 
  2.  It enhances the quality of the dye.
  3.  Its appearance is hygroscopic white solid.
  4.  The density of Lithium Hydroxide is 1.46 g/cm³.
  5.  The melting and boiling points of LiOH are 462 °C and 924°C.
  6.  It is well soluble in water but poorly soluble in alcohol.

Chemical Properties of LiOH 

  • When lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) is react with sulphuric acid (H2SO4) then it gives lithium Sulfate and water.

2LiOH + H2SO4 → LiSO4 + 2H2

  • When Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) reacts with carbon dioxide (CO2) then it gives lithium carbonate and water. And this reaction is also called an exothermic reaction.

2LiOH + CO2 → Li2CO3 + H2

  • When lithium hydroxide is react with chlorine then it gives lithium hypochlorite and hydrochloric acid.

LiOH + Cl2→ LiOCl + HCl  

  • When lithium hydroxide is react with hydrochloric acid then it gives lithium chloride and water. This reaction is also called a neutral reaction. 

 LiOH + HCl →LiCl + H2O

 Uses of LiOH

  1. Lithium hydroxide is most commonly used as an electrolyte in batteries. Like Nickel hydrogen batteries etc.
  2. Lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate are used as a dye. They both increase the reaction and enhance the quality of the dye.
  3. Lithium hydroxide is used for corrosion control.
  4. LiOH is used as a carbon dioxide scrubber in submarines.
  5. It is used in the ceramic and paint industry. 

Sample Questions

Question 1: Is LiOH base in water?


It is base because when it dissolves in an aqueous solution it gives two Li+ ions and OH and any molecule which gives OH after dissolving in water is defined as a base in nature.

Question 2: Is lithium hydroxide used in batteries?


Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate is used in the production of cathode material for lithium-ion electric vehicle batteries it is more suitable because it provides the best energy balance. LiOH is used as an electrolyte in batteries like Nickel hydrogen and nickel-cadmium batteries. They are produced from lithium hydroxide. These batteries are used in watches, digital cameras, smartphones,s, etc.

Question 3: What type of element is LiOH?


Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound having the formula LiOH. It has two forms anhydrous or hydrated, and both forms are white hygroscopic solids. It is odorless in nature. It is a strong base having a pH value of approx 10 and used for various purposes like the making of salt, corrosion control, dye purposes, etc.

Question 4: Is LiOH a strong acid or base?


It is a strong base having a pH value of 10. When lithium hydroxide reacts with some acid like HCL then it gives salt and water and this reaction is known as the neutralization reaction. This reaction is written as 

 LiOH + HCl →LiCl + H2O

Question 5: How is LiOH produced?


Lithium hydroxide is formed when lithium reacts with water then it produces lithium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. The appearance of lithium hydroxide is hygroscopic white solid. And the product which comes after a reaction between water and lithium is well soluble in water but poorly soluble in alcohol.

H2O + Li2+→ LiOH + H2

Question 6: Does lithium hydroxide react with oxygen?


Lithium Hydroxide is insoluble in hydrocarbons. Lithium takes part in a  number of reactions, with organic reactants and with inorganic reactants. It reacts with oxygen to form monoxide and peroxide.

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