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Literals in Python

  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 01 Sep, 2021

Generally, literals are a notation for representing a fixed value in source code. They can also be defined as raw value or data given in variables or constants. 

Example:

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Python3




# Numeric literals
x = 24
y = 24.3
z = 2+3j
print(x, y, z)
Output



24 24.3 (2+3j)

Here 24, 24.3, 2+3j are considered as literals. 

Python has different types of literals.

  1. String literals
  2. Numeric literals
  3. Boolean literals
  4. Literal Collections
  5. Special literals

String literals

A string literal can be created by writing a text(a group of Characters ) surrounded by the single(”), double(“”), or triple quotes.  By using triple quotes we can write multi-line strings or display in the desired way. 

Example:

Python3




# string literals
 
# in single quote
s = 'geekforgeeks'
 
# in double quotes
t = "geekforgeeks"
 
# multi-line String
m = '''geek
           for
               geeks'''
 
print(s)
print(t)
print(m)
Output
geekforgeeks
geekforgeeks
geek 
           for 
               geeks

Here geekforgeeks is string literal which is assigned to variable(s). 

Character literal

It is also a type of string literals where a single character surrounded by single or double-quotes.

Example:



Python3




# character literal in single quote
v = 'n'
 
# character literal in double quotes
w = "a"
 
print(v)
print(w)
Output
n
a

Numeric literals

They are  immutable and there are three types of numeric literal : 

  1. Integer
  2. Float
  3. Complex.

Integer :

 Both positive and negative numbers including 0. There should not be any fractional part.

Example:

Python3




# integer literal
 
# Binary Literals
a = 0b10100
 
# Decimal Literal
b = 50
 
# Octal Literal
c = 0o320
 
# Hexadecimal Literal
d = 0x12b
 
print(a, b, c, d)
Output
20 50 208 299

In the program above we assigned integer literals (0b10100, 50, 0o320, 0x12b) into different variables. Here, ‘a‘ is binary literal, ‘b’ is a decimal literal, ‘c‘ is an octal literal and ‘d‘ is a hexadecimal literal. But on using print function to display value or to get output they were converted into decimal.

Float

 These are real numbers having both integer and fractional parts.

Example:

Python3




# Float Literal
e = 24.8
f = 45.0
 
print(e, f)
Output
24.8 45.0

24.8 and 45.0 are floating-point literals because both 24.8 and 45.0 are floating-point numbers.



Complex Literal 

The numerals will be in the form of a + bj, where ‘a‘ is the real part and ‘b‘ is the complex part.

Example:

Python3




z = 7 + 5j
 
# real part is 0 here.
k = 7j
 
print(z, k)
Output
(7+5j) 7j

Boolean literals

There are only two Boolean literals in Python. They are true and false.

Example:

Python3




a = (1 == True)
b = (1 == False)
c = True + 3
d = False + 7
 
print("a is", a)
print("b is", b)
print("c:", c)
print("d:", d)
Output
a is True
b is False
c: 4
d: 7

In python, True represents the value as 1 and False represents the value as 0. In the above example ‘a‘ is True and ‘b‘ is False because 1 equal to True.

Example:

Python3




x = (1 == True)
y = (2 == False)
z = (3 == True)
r = (1 == True)
a = True + 10
b = False + 10
 
print("x is", x)
print("y is", y)
print("z is", r)
print("a:", a)
print("b:", b)
Output
x is True
y is False
z is True
a: 11
b: 10

Literal Collections

There are four different types of literal collections



  1. List literals
  2. Tuple literals
  3. Dict literals
  4. Set literals

List literals 

List contains items of different data types. The values stored in List are separated by comma (,) and enclosed within square brackets([]). We can store different types of data in a List. Lists are mutable.

Example : 

Python3




# List literals
number = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
name = ['Amit', 'kabir', 'bhaskar', 2]
print(number)
print(name)
Output
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
['Amit', 'kabir', 'bhaskar', 2]

Tuple literals

A tuple is a collection of different data-type.  It is enclosed by the parentheses ‘()‘ and each element is separated by the comma(,). It is immutable.

Example: 

Python3




# Tuple literals
even_number = (2, 4, 6, 8)
odd_number = (1, 3, 5, 7)
 
print(even_number)
print(odd_number)
Output
(2, 4, 6, 8)
(1, 3, 5, 7)

 Dictionary literals

Dictionary stores the data in the key-value pair. It is enclosed by curly-braces ‘{}‘ and each pair is separated by the commas(,).  We can store different types of data in a dictionary. Dictionaries are mutable.

Example: 

Python3




# Dict literals
alphabets = {'a': 'apple', 'b': 'ball', 'c': 'cat'}
information = {'name': 'amit', 'age': 20, 'ID': 20}
 
print(alphabets)
print(information)
Output
{'a': 'apple', 'b': 'ball', 'c': 'cat'}
{'name': 'amit', 'age': 20, 'ID': 20}

Set literals

 Set is the collection of the unordered data set. It is enclosed by the {} and each element is separated by the comma(,).

Example: we can create a set of vowels and fruits. 

Python3




# Set literals
vowels = {'a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u'}
fruits = {"apple", "banana", "cherry"}
 
print(vowels)
print(fruits)
Output
{'o', 'e', 'a', 'u', 'i'}
{'apple', 'banana', 'cherry'}

Special literals

Python contains one special literal (None). ‘None’ is used to define a null variable. If ‘None’ is compared with anything else other than a ‘None’, it will return false.

Example:

Python3




# Special literals
water_remain = None
print(water_remain)
Output
None



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