list back() function in C++ STL

The list::back() function in C++ STL returns a direct reference to the last element in the list container. This function is different from the list::end() function as the end() function returns only the iterator to the last element.

Syntax:

list_name.back() 

Parameters: This function does not accepts any parameter.

Return Value: This function returns a direct reference to the last element in the list container demo_list.

Exception: There is as no such exception in this function but calling this function on an empty list container creates an undefined behavior in C++.

Below program illustrates the list::back() function.

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// CPP program to illustrate the
// list::assign() function
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
  
int main()
{
    // Initialization of list
    list<int> demo_list;
  
    // Adding elements to the list
    demo_list.push_back(10);
    demo_list.push_back(20);
    demo_list.push_back(30);
  
    // prints the last element of demo_list
    cout << demo_list.back();
  
    return 0;
}

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Output:

30


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