Skip to content
Related Articles

Related Articles

Level order traversal in spiral form | Using one stack and one queue

Improve Article
Save Article
Like Article
  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 22 Jun, 2021

Write a function to print spiral order traversal of a tree. For below tree, function should print 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 
 

Spiral image

You are allowed to use only one stack.

We have seen recursive and iterative solutions using two stacks . In this post, a solution with one stack and one queue is discussed. The idea is to keep on entering nodes like normal level order traversal, but during printing, in alternative turns push them onto the stack and print them, and in other traversals, just print them the way they are present in the queue.

Following is the implementation of the idea.  

C++




// CPP program to print level order traversal
// in spiral form using one queue and one stack.
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
struct Node {
   int data;
   Node *left, *right;
};
 
/* Utility function to create a new tree node */
Node* newNode(int val)
{
    Node* new_node = new Node;
    new_node->data = val;
    new_node->left = new_node->right = NULL;
    return new_node;
}
 
/* Function to print a tree in spiral form
   using one stack */
void printSpiralUsingOneStack(Node* root)
{
    if (root == NULL)
        return;
 
    stack<int> s;
    queue<Node*> q;
 
    bool reverse = true;
    q.push(root);
    while (!q.empty()) {
 
        int size = q.size();
        while (size) {
            Node* p = q.front();
            q.pop();
 
            // if reverse is true, push node's
            // data onto the stack, else print it
            if (reverse)
                s.push(p->data);
            else
                cout << p->data << " ";
 
            if (p->left)
                q.push(p->left);
            if (p->right)
                q.push(p->right);
            size--;
        }
 
        // print nodes from the stack if
        // reverse is true
        if (reverse) {
            while (!s.empty()) {
                cout << s.top() << " ";
                s.pop();
            }
        }
 
        // the next row has to be printed as
        // it is, hence change the value of
        // reverse
        reverse = !reverse;
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
    Node* root = newNode(1);
    root->left = newNode(2);
    root->right = newNode(3);
    root->left->left = newNode(7);
    root->left->right = newNode(6);
    root->right->left = newNode(5);
    root->right->right = newNode(4);
    printSpiralUsingOneStack(root);
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java program to print level order traversal
// in spiral form using one queue and one stack.
import java.util.*;
class GFG
{
static class Node
{
    int data;
    Node left, right;
};
 
/* Utility function to create a new tree node */
static Node newNode(int val)
{
    Node new_node = new Node();
    new_node.data = val;
    new_node.left = new_node.right = null;
    return new_node;
}
 
/* Function to print a tree in spiral form
using one stack */
static void printSpiralUsingOneStack(Node root)
{
    if (root == null)
        return;
 
    Stack<Integer> s = new Stack<Integer>();
    Queue<Node> q = new LinkedList<Node>();
 
    boolean reverse = true;
    q.add(root);
    while (!q.isEmpty())
    {
        int size = q.size();
        while (size > 0)
        {
            Node p = q.peek();
            q.remove();
 
            // if reverse is true, push node's
            // data onto the stack, else print it
            if (reverse)
                s.add(p.data);
            else
                System.out.print(p.data + " ");
 
            if (p.left != null)
                q.add(p.left);
            if (p.right != null)
                q.add(p.right);
            size--;
        }
 
        // print nodes from the stack if
        // reverse is true
        if (reverse)
        {
            while (!s.empty())
            {
                System.out.print(s.peek() + " ");
                s.pop();
            }
        }
 
        // the next row has to be printed as
        // it is, hence change the value of
        // reverse
        reverse = !reverse;
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
public static void main(String[] args)
{
    Node root = newNode(1);
    root.left = newNode(2);
    root.right = newNode(3);
    root.left.left = newNode(7);
    root.left.right = newNode(6);
    root.right.left = newNode(5);
    root.right.right = newNode(4);
    printSpiralUsingOneStack(root);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by Princi Singh

Python3




# Python program to print level order traversal
# in spiral form using one queue and one stack.
 
# Utility class to create a new node
class Node:
    def __init__(self, key):
        self.key = key
        self.left = self.right = None
 
# Utility function to create a new tree node
def newNode(val):
 
    new_node = Node(0)
    new_node.data = val
    new_node.left = new_node.right = None
    return new_node
 
# Function to print a tree in spiral form
# using one stack
def printSpiralUsingOneStack(root):
 
    if (root == None):
        return
 
    s = []
    q = []
 
    reverse = True
    q.append(root)
    while (len(q) > 0) :
 
        size = len(q)
        while (size > 0) :
            p = q[0]
            q.pop(0)
 
            # if reverse is true, push node's
            # data onto the stack, else print it
            if (reverse):
                s.append(p.data)
            else:
                print( p.data ,end = " ")
 
            if (p.left != None):
                q.append(p.left)
            if (p.right != None):
                q.append(p.right)
            size = size - 1
         
        # print nodes from the stack if
        # reverse is true
        if (reverse) :
            while (len(s)) :
                print( s[-1],end= " ")
                s.pop()
             
        # the next row has to be printed as
        # it is, hence change the value of
        # reverse
        reverse = not reverse
     
# Driver Code
root = newNode(1)
root.left = newNode(2)
root.right = newNode(3)
root.left.left = newNode(7)
root.left.right = newNode(6)
root.right.left = newNode(5)
root.right.right = newNode(4)
printSpiralUsingOneStack(root)
 
# This code is contributed by Arnab Kundu

C#




// C# program to print level order traversal
// in spiral form using one queue and one stack.
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
 
class GFG
{
public class Node
{
    public int data;
    public Node left, right;
};
 
/* Utility function to create a new tree node */
static Node newNode(int val)
{
    Node new_node = new Node();
    new_node.data = val;
    new_node.left = new_node.right = null;
    return new_node;
}
 
/* Function to print a tree in spiral form
using one stack */
static void printSpiralUsingOneStack(Node root)
{
    if (root == null)
        return;
 
    Stack<int> s = new Stack<int>();
    Queue<Node> q = new Queue<Node>();
 
    Boolean reverse = true;
    q.Enqueue(root);
    while (q.Count != 0)
    {
        int size = q.Count;
        while (size > 0)
        {
            Node p = q.Peek();
            q.Dequeue();
 
            // if reverse is true, push node's
            // data onto the stack, else print it
            if (reverse)
                s.Push(p.data);
            else
                Console.Write(p.data + " ");
 
            if (p.left != null)
                q.Enqueue(p.left);
            if (p.right != null)
                q.Enqueue(p.right);
            size--;
        }
 
        // print nodes from the stack if
        // reverse is true
        if (reverse)
        {
            while (s.Count != 0)
            {
                Console.Write(s.Peek() + " ");
                s.Pop();
            }
        }
 
        // the next row has to be printed as
        // it is, hence change the value of
        // reverse
        reverse = !reverse;
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
public static void Main(String[] args)
{
    Node root = newNode(1);
    root.left = newNode(2);
    root.right = newNode(3);
    root.left.left = newNode(7);
    root.left.right = newNode(6);
    root.right.left = newNode(5);
    root.right.right = newNode(4);
    printSpiralUsingOneStack(root);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by Rajput-Jiv

Javascript




<script>
 
// Javascript program to print level
// order traversal in spiral form
// using one queue and one stack.
class Node
{
    constructor()
    {
        this.data = 0;
        this.left = null;
        this.right = null;
    }
};
 
// Utility function to create
// a new tree node
function newNode(val)
{
    var new_node = new Node();
    new_node.data = val;
    new_node.left = new_node.right = null;
    return new_node;
}
 
// Function to print a tree in spiral form
// using one stack
function printSpiralUsingOneStack(root)
{
    if (root == null)
        return;
 
    var s = [];
    var q = [];
 
    var reverse = true;
    q.push(root);
     
    while (q.length != 0)
    {
        var size = q.length;
        while (size > 0)
        {
            var p = q[0];
            q.shift();
 
            // If reverse is true, push node's
            // data onto the stack, else print it
            if (reverse)
                s.push(p.data);
            else
                document.write(p.data + " ");
 
            if (p.left != null)
                q.push(p.left);
            if (p.right != null)
                q.push(p.right);
                 
            size--;
        }
 
        // Print nodes from the stack if
        // reverse is true
        if (reverse)
        {
            while (s.length != 0)
            {
                document.write(s[s.length - 1] + " ");
                s.pop();
            }
        }
 
        // The next row has to be printed as
        // it is, hence change the value of
        // reverse
        reverse = !reverse;
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
var root = newNode(1);
root.left = newNode(2);
root.right = newNode(3);
root.left.left = newNode(7);
root.left.right = newNode(6);
root.right.left = newNode(5);
root.right.right = newNode(4);
 
printSpiralUsingOneStack(root);
 
// This code is contributed by rutvik_56
 
</script>
Output: 
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

 

Time Complexity : O(n) 
Auxiliary Space : O(n)
 


My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up
Recommended Articles
Page :

Start Your Coding Journey Now!