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Lead (II) Chloride Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 19 Jul, 2022
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Lead is a chemical element and is a substance that contains only one type of atom. Its official chemical symbol is Pb and its atomic number is 82. This means that there are 82 protons in the core of the lead atom. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable (non-radioactive) element. Lead is a soft, malleable, ductile, dense metallic element. It is mainly derived from the mineral galena and is found in ores that also contain zinc, silver, and copper.

Chloride is a halogenated anion formed when chlorine receives an electron to form an anion. It serves as a human metabolite, E. coli metabolite, and cofactor. Halide anion and monatomic chlorine. It is a conjugate base of hydrogen chloride.

Lead (II) chloride The inorganic compound lead (II) chloride gives the appearance of a white solid under ambient conditions. In water, this chemical has low solubility. Lead Chloride II  is the main reagent containing lead. It occurs naturally in the form of the mineral Cotunnite. The main precursor for many organometallic lead derivatives, such as Plumbocene, is lead (II) chloride. When lead chloride combines with molten sodium nitrite, lead oxide is formed.

Structure Of Lead (II) chloride The chemical formula of lead chloride is PbCl2, commonly known as lead chloride, but its IUPAC name is lead (II) chloride. Chlorine atoms are bonded to the central lead atom by a covalent bond with a bond angle of 98°, and the isotope bond distance of each chlorine atom to the central lead atom is 2.44 Å. To explain the nature of the bond, we need to take into account the electron configuration of the molecule and its atoms. Now the atomic number of the lead atom is 82. This means that the electron configuration will be Pb 6s2 4f145d106p2. Therefore, there are two electrons in the lead shell that can be donated or shared. On the other hand, the atomic number of chlorine is 17. This means that the electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5. This means that the presence of unpaired electrons in the 3p orbital makes the shell unstable and requires electrons to raise the octane number to complete. Therefore, the two chlorine atoms share each of the two lead electron pairs present in the 6s shell to complete the octane, making it a stable molecule. Lead (II) chloride molecules form a curved structure. Therefore, the structural formula of the lead chloride molecule is shown as follows.

 

Production Of Lead (II) chloride

  • The direct reduction reaction occurs when copper (II) chloride is reduced in the presence of lead metal to produce lead (II) chloride. The reaction is as follows:  

Pb (s) + CuCl2 → PbCl2 (s) + Cu (s)   

  • Direct chlorination of lead metals with chlorine gas also produces lead (II) chloride. The reaction is as follows: 

Pb (s) + Cl2 (g) → PbCl2 (s)

  • Production of lead (II) chloride by soluble compound – When Lead Nitrate reacts with sodium chloride it produces, lead (II) chloride

Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl (aq) → PbCl2 (s) + NaNO3 (aq)

  • Production of lead (II) chloride by insoluble compound – When lead (ll) Oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid, lead (II) chloride forms as a product

PbO (s) + 2HCl (aq) → PbCl2 (s) + H2O (aq) 

Physical properties of Lead (II) chloride

  • Molar mass -278.10 g / mol.
  • Chemical formula – PbCl2.
  • Appearance – White odorless. 
  • Density – 5.85 g /cm3.
  • Boiling point – 950oC or 1740oF or 1220 K.
  • Melting point – 501oC or 934oF or 774 K.

Chemical properties of Lead (II) chloride

  • When chloride ions are added to a lead chloride suspension solution, lead chloride complex ions are formed in the solution. This is because the addition of chlorine ions or any ligand breaks the chlorine bridge that gave the polymer backbone to solid lead chloride.

PbCl2 (s) + Cl → [PbCl3]

PbCl2 (s) + 2Cl → [PbCl4]2-

  • When molten NaNO2 reacts with PbCl2, PbO is formed.

PbCl2 (s) + 3NaNO2 ( l) → PbO + 2NO + NaNO3 + 2NaCl

Uses

  • In the manufacture of infrared transmissive glass, experts use Lead Chloride. According to experts, this chemical is also used in attractive glass, and aura glass. The iridescent surface of some special glass is created by spraying Lead (II) Chloride and heating under controlled conditions. 
  •  Bismuth (Bi) ore is refined using lead chloride II  as an intermediate. Ores containing Bi, Pb, and Zn are first treated with molten caustic soda to remove trace amounts of acidic elements. Then use the Parks desilvering process to remove any residual silver and gold.  
  • Bi, Pb, and Zn are present in the ore. Experts process using Cl2 gas at a temperature of 500 ° C. ZnCl2 is formed first and then removed. After that, PbCl2 evolves and is removed, leaving only pure Bi, BiCl3 is formed last.

Sample Questions

Question 1: Is it a lead (II) chloride cation?

Solution:

Lead (II) chloride is not always a cation, but the lead atom in the molecule can donate two electrons in the 6s shell to form a cation, while each chlorine atom in the 3p shell acquires electrons to complete the octane and therefore functions as a cation.

Question 2; Is Lead (II) Chloride water soluble?

Solution:

PbCl2 (lead (II) chloride) is an inorganic compound that is a white solid at room temperature. Low water solubility. One of the most important lead-based reagents is lead (II) chloride. It also occurs naturally as a mineral Cotunnite. The ionic bond that holds Pb2+ in Cl is insoluble in cold water because it is stronger than the hydration force between the ion and the water molecule.

Question 3: Is Lead(II) Chloride a strong or weak electrolyte?

Solution: 

Electrolyte is a compound that separates into cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negatively charged ions) (negatively charged ions) when dissolved in water. This is called ionization. In lead (II) chloride, which is an inorganic chloride, two chlorine atoms are covalently bonded to the central lead atom. It is an inorganic chloride and a lead-coordinating substance. PbCl2 is a strong electrolyte because it is an ionic compound, but it is insoluble and is not recorded as a separate ion.

Question 4: What kind of bond is lead chloride? 

Solution: 

A covalent bond with a  bond angle of 98o connects the chlorine atom to the central lead atom, and the isotope bond distance between each chlorine atom and the central lead atom is 2.44. In PbCl4,  lead is in the Pb4 state and Cl has a significant charge density, but it is not very large and is easy to polarize. The high charge density of lead polarizes anions much more efficiently, shifting the electron density. It is partially shared, resulting in a strong covalent bond.

Question 5: What is Lead White Lead Chloride?

Solution: 

Lead White Chloride is also known as Pattinson’s White Lead with the chemical formula PbCl2. Originally used as automotive paint, Pb (OH)2 is now banned in many countries due to its high health risks.

Question 6: Can lead chloride form a precipitate?

Solution: 

Lead (II) chloride may form a white precipitate when chlorine ions are added to a solution of lead (II) nitrate. Therefore, a sodium chloride solution or other similar chloride solution is used to produce chloride ions.

Question 7: Is Lead Chloride Toxic?  

Solution: 

Lead chloride can be carcinogenic to humans. Inorganic lead compounds have been shown to cause kidney cancer in animals and are associated with lung, brain, stomach, and kidney cancer in humans. Carcinogens are substances that cause cancer.  Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea are symptoms of gastrointestinal inflammation when taking lead chloride. Lead compounds can be harmful to the hematopoietic organs, kidneys, and central nervous system when ingested. The effects may be similar to those reported for ingestion.


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