Given n, find the greatest number which is strictly not more then n and whose binary representation consists of m consecutive ones, then m-1 consecutive zeros and nothing else
Input : n = 7 Output : 6 Explanation: 6's binary representation is 110, and 7's is 111, so 6 consists of 2 consecutive 1's and then 1 consecutive 0. Input : 130 Output : 120 Explanation: 28 and 120 are the only numbers <=120, 28 is 11100 consists of 3 consecutive 1's and then 2 consecutive 0's. 120 is 1111000 consists of 4 consecutive 1's and then 3 consecutive 0's. So 120 is the greatest of number<=120 which meets the given condition.
A naive approach will be to traverse from 1 to N and check for every binary representation which consists of m consecutive 1’s and m-1 consecutive 0’s and store the largest of them which meets the given condition.
An efficient approach is to observe a pattern of numbers,
[1(1), 6(110), 28(11100), 120(1111000), 496(111110000), ….]
To get the formula for the numbers which satisfies the conditions we take 120 as an example-
120 is represented as 1111000 which has m = 4 1’s and m = 3 0’s. Converting 1111000 to decimal we get:
2^3+2^4+2^5+2^6 which can be represented as (2^m-1 + 2^m+ 2^m+1 + … 2^m+2, 2^2*m)
2^3*(1+2+2^2+2^3) which can be represented as (2^(m-1)*(1+2+2^2+2^3+..2^(m-1))
2^3*(2^4-1) which can be represented as [2^(m-1) * (2^m -1)].
So all the numbers that meet the given condition can be represented as
[2^(m-1) * (2^m -1)]
We can iterate till the number does not exceeds N and print the largest of all possible elements. A closer observation will shows that at m = 33 it will exceed the 10^18 mark , so we are calculating the number in unit’s time as log(32) is near to constant which is required in calculating the pow .
So, the overall complexity will be O(1).
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