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Largest lexicographical string with at most K consecutive elements

  • Difficulty Level : Hard
  • Last Updated : 04 Jun, 2021

Given a string S, the task is to find the largest lexicographical string with no more than K consecutive occurrence of an element by either re-arranging or deleting the elements.
Examples: 

Input: S = “baccc” 
K = 2 
Output: Result = “ccbca” 
Explanation: Since K=2, a maximum of 2 same characters can be placed consecutively. 
No. of ‘c’ = 3. 
No. of ‘b’ = 1. 
No. of ‘a’ = 1. 
Since the largest lexicographical string has to be printed, therefore, the answer is “ccbca”.

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Input: S = “xxxxzaz” 
K = 3 
Output: result = “zzxxxax” 

Approach: 

  1. Form a frequency array of size 26, where index i is chosen using (a character in a string – ‘a’).
  2. Initialize an empty string to store corresponding changes.
  3. For i=25 to 0, do:
    • If frequency at index i is greater than k, then append (i + ‘a’) K-times. Decrease frequency by K at index i.find the next greatest priority element and append to answer and decrease the frequency at the respective index by 1.
    • If frequency at index i is greater than 0 but less than k, then append (i + ‘a’) times its frequency.
    • If frequency at index i is 0, then that index cannot be used to form an element and therefore check for the next possible highest priority element.
       

C++




// C++ code for the above approach
 
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
#define ll long long int
 
// Function to find the
// largest lexicographical
// string with given constraints.
string getLargestString(string s,
                        ll k)
{
 
    // vector containing frequency
    // of each character.
    vector<int> frequency_array(26, 0);
 
    // assigning frequency to
    for (int i = 0;
         i < s.length(); i++) {
 
        frequency_array[s[i] - 'a']++;
    }
 
    // empty string of string class type
    string ans = "";
 
    // loop to iterate over
    // maximum priority first.
    for (int i = 25; i >= 0;) {
 
        // if frequency is greater than
        // or equal to k.
        if (frequency_array[i] > k) {
 
            // temporary variable to operate
            // in-place of k.
            int temp = k;
            string st(1, i + 'a');
            while (temp > 0) {
 
                // concatenating with the
                // resultant string ans.
                ans += st;
                temp--;
            }
 
            frequency_array[i] -= k;
 
            // handling k case by adjusting
            // with just smaller priority
            // element.
            int j = i - 1;
            while (frequency_array[j]
                       <= 0
                   && j >= 0) {
                j--;
            }
 
            // condition to verify if index
            // j does have frequency
            // greater than 0;
            if (frequency_array[j] > 0
                && j >= 0) {
                string str(1, j + 'a');
                ans += str;
                frequency_array[j] -= 1;
            }
            else {
 
                // if no such element is found
                // than string can not be
                // processed further.
                break;
            }
        }
 
        // if frequency is greater than 0
        // and less than k.
        else if (frequency_array[i] > 0) {
 
            // here we don't need to fix K
            // consecutive element criteria.
            int temp = frequency_array[i];
            frequency_array[i] -= temp;
            string st(1, i + 'a');
            while (temp > 0) {
                ans += st;
                temp--;
            }
        }
 
        // otherwise check for next
        // possible element.
        else {
            i--;
        }
    }
    return ans;
}
 
// Driver program
int main()
{
    string S = "xxxxzza";
    int k = 3;
    cout << getLargestString(S, k)
         << endl;
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java code for
// the above approach
import java.util.*;
class GFG{
 
// Function to find the
// largest lexicographical
// String with given constraints.
static String getLargestString(String s,
                               int k)
{
  // Vector containing frequency
  // of each character.
  int []frequency_array = new int[26];
 
  // Assigning frequency
  for (int i = 0;
           i < s.length(); i++)
  {
    frequency_array[s.charAt(i) - 'a']++;
  }
 
  // Empty String of
  // String class type
  String ans = "";
 
  // Loop to iterate over
  // maximum priority first.
  for (int i = 25; i >= 0😉
  {
    // If frequency is greater than
    // or equal to k.
    if (frequency_array[i] > k)
    {
      // Temporary variable to
      // operate in-place of k.
      int temp = k;
      String st = String.valueOf((char)(i + 'a'));
      while (temp > 0)
      {
        // Concatenating with the
        // resultant String ans.
        ans += st;
        temp--;
      }
 
      frequency_array[i] -= k;
 
      // Handling k case by adjusting
      // with just smaller priority
      // element.
      int j = i - 1;
       
      while (frequency_array[j] <= 0 &&
             j >= 0)
      {
        j--;
      }
 
      // Condition to verify if index
      // j does have frequency
      // greater than 0;
      if (frequency_array[j] > 0 &&
          j >= 0)
      {
        String str = String.valueOf((char)(j + 'a'));
        ans += str;
        frequency_array[j] -= 1;
      }
      else
      {
        // If no such element is found
        // than String can not be
        // processed further.
        break;
      }
    }
 
    // If frequency is greater than 0
    // and less than k.
    else if (frequency_array[i] > 0)
    {
      // Here we don't need to fix K
      // consecutive element criteria.
      int temp = frequency_array[i];
      frequency_array[i] -= temp;
      String st = String.valueOf((char)(i + 'a'));
       
      while (temp > 0)
      {
        ans += st;
        temp--;
      }
    }
 
    // Otherwise check for next
    // possible element.
    else
    {
      i--;
    }
  }
  return ans;
}
 
// Driver code
public static void main(String[] args)
{
  String S = "xxxxzza";
  int k = 3;
  System.out.print(getLargestString(S, k));
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by shikhasingrajput

Python3




# Python3 code for the above approach
 
# Function to find the
# largest lexicographical
# string with given constraints.
def getLargestString(s, k):
 
    # Vector containing frequency
    # of each character.
    frequency_array = [0] * 26
 
    # Assigning frequency to
    for i in range(len(s)):
 
        frequency_array[ord(s[i]) -
                        ord('a')] += 1
  
    # Empty string of
    # string class type
    ans = ""
 
    # Loop to iterate over
    # maximum priority first.
    i = 25
    while i >= 0:
 
        # If frequency is greater than
        # or equal to k.
        if (frequency_array[i] > k):
 
            # Temporary variable to
            # operate in-place of k.
            temp = k
            st = chr( i + ord('a'))
             
            while (temp > 0):
 
                # concatenating with the
                # resultant string ans.
                ans += st
                temp -= 1
           
            frequency_array[i] -= k
 
            # Handling k case by adjusting
            # with just smaller priority
            # element.
            j = i - 1
             
            while (frequency_array[j] <= 0 and
                   j >= 0):
                j -= 1
           
            # Condition to verify if index
            # j does have frequency
            # greater than 0;
            if (frequency_array[j] > 0 and
                j >= 0):
                str1 = chr(j + ord( 'a'))
                ans += str1
                frequency_array[j] -= 1
             
            else:
 
                # if no such element is found
                # than string can not be
                # processed further.
                break
             
        # If frequency is greater than 0
        #and less than k.
        elif (frequency_array[i] > 0):
 
            # Here we don't need to fix K
            # consecutive element criteria.
            temp = frequency_array[i]
            frequency_array[i] -= temp
            st = chr(i + ord('a'))
            while (temp > 0):
                ans += st
                temp -= 1
             
        # Otherwise check for next
        # possible element.
        else:
            i -= 1
             
    return ans           
 
# Driver code
if __name__ == "__main__":
   
    S = "xxxxzza"
    k = 3
    print (getLargestString(S, k))
   
# This code is contributed by Chitranayal

C#




// C# code for
// the above approach
using System;
class GFG{
 
// Function to find the
// largest lexicographical
// String with given constraints.
static String getLargestString(String s,
                               int k)
{
  // List containing frequency
  // of each character.
  int []frequency_array = new int[26];
 
  // Assigning frequency
  for (int i = 0; i < s.Length; i++)
  {
    frequency_array[s[i] - 'a']++;
  }
 
  // Empty String of
  // String class type
  String ans = "";
 
  // Loop to iterate over
  // maximum priority first.
  for (int i = 25; i >= 0;)
  {
    // If frequency is greater than
    // or equal to k.
    if (frequency_array[i] > k)
    {
      // Temporary variable to
      // operate in-place of k.
      int temp = k;
      String st = String.Join("",
                  (char)(i + 'a'));
       
      while (temp > 0)
      {
        // Concatenating with the
        // resultant String ans.
        ans += st;
        temp--;
      }
 
      frequency_array[i] -= k;
 
      // Handling k case by adjusting
      // with just smaller priority
      // element.
      int j = i - 1;
       
      while (frequency_array[j] <= 0 &&
                             j >= 0)
      {
        j--;
      }
 
      // Condition to verify if index
      // j does have frequency
      // greater than 0;
      if (frequency_array[j] > 0 &&
                          j >= 0)
      {
        String str = String.Join("",
                     (char)(j + 'a'));
        ans += str;
        frequency_array[j] -= 1;
      }
      else
      {
        // If no such element is found
        // than String can not be
        // processed further.
        break;
      }
    }
 
    // If frequency is greater than 0
    // and less than k.
    else if (frequency_array[i] > 0)
    {
      // Here we don't need to fix K
      // consecutive element criteria.
      int temp = frequency_array[i];
      frequency_array[i] -= temp;
      String st = String.Join("",
                  (char)(i + 'a'));
       
      while (temp > 0)
      {
        ans += st;
        temp--;
      }
    }
 
    // Otherwise check for next
    // possible element.
    else
    {
      i--;
    }
  }
  return ans;
}
 
// Driver code
public static void Main(String[] args)
{
  String S = "xxxxzza";
  int k = 3;
  Console.Write(getLargestString(S, k));
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by Princi Singh

Javascript




<script>
// Javascript code for
// the above approach
 
// Function to find the
// largest lexicographical
// String with given constraints.
function getLargestString(s,k)
{
    // Vector containing frequency
  // of each character.
  let frequency_array = new Array(26);
 for(let i=0;i<26;i++)
 {
     frequency_array[i]=0;
 }
     
  // Assigning frequency
  for (let i = 0;
           i < s.length; i++)
  {
    frequency_array[s[i].charCodeAt(0) - 'a'.charCodeAt(0)]++;
  }
  
  // Empty String of
  // String class type
  let ans = "";
  
  // Loop to iterate over
  // maximum priority first.
  for (let i = 25; i >= 0;)
  {
    // If frequency is greater than
    // or equal to k.
    if (frequency_array[i] > k)
    {
      // Temporary variable to
      // operate in-place of k.
      let temp = k;
      let st = String.fromCharCode(i + 'a'.charCodeAt(0));
      while (temp > 0)
      {
        // Concatenating with the
        // resultant String ans.
        ans += st;
        temp--;
      }
  
      frequency_array[i] -= k;
  
      // Handling k case by adjusting
      // with just smaller priority
      // element.
      let j = i - 1;
        
      while (frequency_array[j] <= 0 &&
             j >= 0)
      {
        j--;
      }
  
      // Condition to verify if index
      // j does have frequency
      // greater than 0;
      if (frequency_array[j] > 0 &&
          j >= 0)
      {
        let str = String.fromCharCode(j + 'a'.charCodeAt(0));
        ans += str;
        frequency_array[j] -= 1;
      }
      else
      {
        // If no such element is found
        // than String can not be
        // processed further.
        break;
      }
    }
  
    // If frequency is greater than 0
    // and less than k.
    else if (frequency_array[i] > 0)
    {
      // Here we don't need to fix K
      // consecutive element criteria.
      let temp = frequency_array[i];
      frequency_array[i] -= temp;
      let st = String.fromCharCode(i + 'a'.charCodeAt(0));
        
      while (temp > 0)
      {
        ans += st;
        temp--;
      }
    }
  
    // Otherwise check for next
    // possible element.
    else
    {
      i--;
    }
  }
  return ans;
}
 
// Driver code
let S = "xxxxzza";
let k = 3;
document.write(getLargestString(S, k));
 
// This code is contributed by avanitrachhadiya2155
</script>
Output
zzxxxax

Time Complexity: O(N) 




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