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JavaScript Arithmetic Operators

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  • Last Updated : 17 Jan, 2023
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JavaScript Arithmetic Operators are the operators that operate upon the numerical values and return a numerical value. There are many operators in JavaScript. Each operator is described below along with its example.

Addition (+) The addition operator takes two numerical operands and gives their numerical sum. It also concatenates two strings or numbers.

Syntax:

a + b

Example:

Javascript




// Number + Number => Addition
let x = 1 + 2
console.log(x)
 
// Number + String => Concatenation
let y =  5 + "hello"
console.log(y)

Output:

3
5hello

Subtraction (-) The subtraction operator gives the difference of two operands in the form of numerical value.

Syntax:

a - b

Example:

Javascript




// Number - Number => Subtraction
 let x = 10 - 7
 console.log(x)
 
let y = "Hello" - 1
console.log(y)

Output:

3
NaN

Multiplication (*) The multiplication operator gives the product of operands where one operand is a multiplicand and another is multiplier.

Syntax:

a * b

Example:

Javascript




// Number * Number => Multiplication
let x = 3 * 3
let y = -4 * 4
console.log(x)
console.log(y)
 
 
let a = Infinity * 0
let b = Infinity * Infinity
console.log(a)
console.log(b)
let z = 'hi' * 2
  console.log(z)

Output:

9
-16
NaN
Infinity
NaN

Division (/) The division operator provides the quotient of its operands where the right operand is the divisor and the left operand is the dividend.

Syntax: 

a / b

Example:

Javascript




// Number / Number => Division
let x = 5 / 2
let y = 1.0 / 2.0
console.log(x)
console.log(y)
 
 
let a = 3.0 / 0
let b = 4.0 / 0.0
console.log(a)
console.log(b)
let z = 2.0 / -0.0
console.log(z)

Output:

2.5
0.5
Infinity
Infinity
-Infinity

Modulus (%) The modulus operator returns the remainder left over when a dividend is divided by a divisor. The modulus operator is also known as the remainder operator. It takes the sign of the dividend.

Syntax:

a % b

Example:

Javascript




// Number % Number => Modulus of the number
 
let x = 9 % 5
let y = -12 % 5
let z = 1 % -2
let a = 5.5 % 2
let b = -4 % 2
let c = NaN % 2
 
console.log(x)
console.log(y)
console.log(z)
console.log(a)
console.log(b)
console.log(c)

Output:

4
-2
1
1.5
0
NaN

Exponentiation (**) The exponentiation operator gives the result of raising the first operand to the power of the second operand. The exponentiation operator is right-associative. 

Syntax:

a ** b

In JavaScript, it is not possible to write an ambiguous exponentiation expression i.e. you cannot put an unary operator (+ / – / ~ / ! / delete / void) immediately before the base number.

Example:

Javascript




// Number ** Number => Exponential of the number
 
// let x = -4 ** 2 // This is an incorrect expression
let y = -(4 ** 2)
let z = 2 ** 5
let a = 3 ** 3
let b = 3 ** 2.5
let c = 10 ** -2
let d = 2 ** 3 ** 2
let e = NaN ** 2
 
console.log(y)
console.log(z)
console.log(a)
console.log(b)
console.log(c)
console.log(d)
console.log(e)

Output:

-16
32
27
15.588457268119896
0.01
512
NaN

Increment (++) The increment operator increments (adds one to) its operand and returns a value.

  • If used postfix with the operator after the operand (for example, x++), then it increments and returns the value before incrementing.
  • If used prefix with the operator before the operand (for example, ++x), then it increments and returns the value after incrementing.

Syntax: 

a++ or ++a

Example:

Javascript




// Postfix
var a = 2;
b = a++; // b = 2, a = 3
 
// Prefix
var x = 5;
y = ++x; // x = 6, y = 6
 
console.log(a)
console.log(b)
console.log(x)
console.log(y)

Output:

3
2
6
6

Decrement (–) The decrement operator decrements (subtracts one from) its operand and returns a value.

  • If used postfix, with operator after operand (for example, x–), then it decrements and returns the value before decrementing.
  • If used prefix, with the operator before the operand (for example, –x), then it decrements and returns the value after decrementing.

Syntax:

a-- or --a

Example:

Javascript




// Prefix
var a = 2;
b = --a;
 
// Postfix
var x = 3;
y = x--;
  
 console.log(a)
 console.log(b)
 console.log(x)
 console.log(y)

Output:

1
1
2
3

Unary (-) This is a unary operator i.e. it operates on a single operand. It gives the negation of an operand.

Syntax:

-a

Example:

Javascript




var a = 3;
b = -a;
 
// Unary negation operator
// can convert non-numbers
// into a number
var x = "3";
y = -x;
   
  console.log(a)
  console.log(b)
  console.log(x)
  console.log(y)

Output:

3
-3
3
-3

Unary (+) This is a way to convert a non-number into a number. Although unary negation (-) also can convert non-numbers, unary plus is the fastest and preferred way of converting something into a number, because it does not perform any other operations on the number.

Syntax:

+a

Example:

Javascript




let a =  +4    
let b = +'2'  
let c = +true 
let x = +false
let y = +null
      
console.log(a)
console.log(b)
console.log(c)
console.log(x)
console.log(y)

Output:

4
2
1
0
0

We have a complete list of Javascript operators, to check those please go through this Javascript Operators Complete reference article.

We have a Cheat Sheet on Javascript where we covered all the important topics of Javascript to check those please go through Javascript Cheat Sheet-A Basic guide to JavaScript.


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