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# JavaScript Arithmetic Operators

• Last Updated : 17 Jan, 2023

JavaScript Arithmetic Operators are the operators that operate upon the numerical values and return a numerical value. There are many operators in JavaScript. Each operator is described below along with its example.

Addition (+) The addition operator takes two numerical operands and gives their numerical sum. It also concatenates two strings or numbers.

Syntax:

`a + b`

Example:

## Javascript

 `// Number + Number => Addition``let x = 1 + 2``console.log(x)` `// Number + String => Concatenation``let y =  5 + ``"hello"``console.log(y)`

Output:

```3
5hello```

Subtraction (-) The subtraction operator gives the difference of two operands in the form of numerical value.

Syntax:

`a - b`

Example:

## Javascript

 `// Number - Number => Subtraction`` ``let x = 10 - 7`` ``console.log(x)` `let y = ``"Hello"` `- 1``console.log(y)`

Output:

```3
NaN```

Multiplication (*) The multiplication operator gives the product of operands where one operand is a multiplicand and another is multiplier.

Syntax:

`a * b`

Example:

## Javascript

 `// Number * Number => Multiplication``let x = 3 * 3``let y = -4 * 4``console.log(x)``console.log(y)`  `let a = Infinity * 0``let b = Infinity * Infinity``console.log(a)``console.log(b)``let z = ``'hi'` `* 2``  ``console.log(z)`

Output:

```9
-16
NaN
Infinity
NaN```

Division (/) The division operator provides the quotient of its operands where the right operand is the divisor and the left operand is the dividend.

Syntax:

`a / b`

Example:

## Javascript

 `// Number / Number => Division``let x = 5 / 2``let y = 1.0 / 2.0``console.log(x)``console.log(y)`  `let a = 3.0 / 0``let b = 4.0 / 0.0``console.log(a)``console.log(b)``let z = 2.0 / -0.0``console.log(z)`

Output:

```2.5
0.5
Infinity
Infinity
-Infinity```

Modulus (%) The modulus operator returns the remainder left over when a dividend is divided by a divisor. The modulus operator is also known as the remainder operator. It takes the sign of the dividend.

Syntax:

`a % b`

Example:

## Javascript

 `// Number % Number => Modulus of the number` `let x = 9 % 5``let y = -12 % 5``let z = 1 % -2``let a = 5.5 % 2``let b = -4 % 2``let c = NaN % 2` `console.log(x)``console.log(y)``console.log(z)``console.log(a)``console.log(b)``console.log(c)`

Output:

```4
-2
1
1.5
0
NaN```

Exponentiation (**) The exponentiation operator gives the result of raising the first operand to the power of the second operand. The exponentiation operator is right-associative.

Syntax:

`a ** b`

In JavaScript, it is not possible to write an ambiguous exponentiation expression i.e. you cannot put an unary operator (+ / – / ~ / ! / delete / void) immediately before the base number.

Example:

## Javascript

 `// Number ** Number => Exponential of the number` `// let x = -4 ** 2 // This is an incorrect expression``let y = -(4 ** 2)``let z = 2 ** 5``let a = 3 ** 3``let b = 3 ** 2.5``let c = 10 ** -2``let d = 2 ** 3 ** 2``let e = NaN ** 2` `console.log(y)``console.log(z)``console.log(a)``console.log(b)``console.log(c)``console.log(d)``console.log(e)`

Output:

```-16
32
27
15.588457268119896
0.01
512
NaN```

Increment (++) The increment operator increments (adds one to) its operand and returns a value.

• If used postfix with the operator after the operand (for example, x++), then it increments and returns the value before incrementing.
• If used prefix with the operator before the operand (for example, ++x), then it increments and returns the value after incrementing.

Syntax:

`a++ or ++a`

Example:

## Javascript

 `// Postfix``var` `a = 2;``b = a++; ``// b = 2, a = 3` `// Prefix``var` `x = 5;``y = ++x; ``// x = 6, y = 6` `console.log(a)``console.log(b)``console.log(x)``console.log(y)`

Output:

```3
2
6
6```

Decrement (–) The decrement operator decrements (subtracts one from) its operand and returns a value.

• If used postfix, with operator after operand (for example, x–), then it decrements and returns the value before decrementing.
• If used prefix, with the operator before the operand (for example, –x), then it decrements and returns the value after decrementing.

Syntax:

`a-- or --a`

Example:

## Javascript

 `// Prefix``var` `a = 2;``b = --a;` `// Postfix``var` `x = 3;``y = x--;`` ` ` ``console.log(a)`` ``console.log(b)`` ``console.log(x)`` ``console.log(y)`

Output:

```1
1
2
3```

Unary (-) This is a unary operator i.e. it operates on a single operand. It gives the negation of an operand.

Syntax:

`-a`

Example:

## Javascript

 `var` `a = 3;``b = -a;` `// Unary negation operator``// can convert non-numbers``// into a number``var` `x = ``"3"``;``y = -x;``  ` `  ``console.log(a)``  ``console.log(b)``  ``console.log(x)``  ``console.log(y)`

Output:

```3
-3
3
-3```

Unary (+) This is a way to convert a non-number into a number. Although unary negation (-) also can convert non-numbers, unary plus is the fastest and preferred way of converting something into a number, because it does not perform any other operations on the number.

Syntax:

`+a`

Example:

## Javascript

 `let a =  +4    ``let b = +``'2'`  `let c = +``true` `let x = +``false``let y = +``null``     ` `console.log(a)``console.log(b)``console.log(c)``console.log(x)``console.log(y)`

Output:

```4
2
1
0
0```

We have a complete list of Javascript operators, to check those please go through this Javascript Operators Complete reference article.

We have a Cheat Sheet on Javascript where we covered all the important topics of Javascript to check those please go through Javascript Cheat Sheet-A Basic guide to JavaScript.

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