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Java Program to Solve Set Cover Problem
  • Last Updated : 12 Mar, 2021

Problem Statement: Given a set of elements 1 to n and a set S of n sets whose union equals everything, the problem is to find the minimum numbers of subsets equal the set in a pair of 2.

Concept: This problem is to solve the set problems. We can use permutations and combinations to solve this problem. 

Illustration:

Input:     All Possible Combination = {{1,2}, {3,4}, {8,9}, {10,7}, {5,8}, {11,6}, {4,5}, {6,7}, {10,11},}

                Numbers = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11}



Output: The short combination was : [[1, 2], [3, 4], [8, 9], [10, 7], [5, 8], [11, 6]]

Input:     All Possible Combination = {{1,2}, {3,4}, {2,7}, {5,3}, {4,5}, {6,7}, }

               Numbers = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7}

Output: The short combination was : [[1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 3], [6, 7]]

Approach:

  1. At first, we give the possible sets and numbers of combinations as input in an array.
  2. Create a list and store all of them.
  3. Taking a Set and store the solution in that set.
  4. Call the shortest combo function
  5. This function takes a set as input and throws an exception if size greater than 20
  6. Iterates the size of all possible combinations and the new Set
  7. It then right shifts the value and then ending it to 1, we add all the solutions to the array List.
  8. This array List is returned by eliminating the duplicate values in the List

Implementation:

Example

Java




// Java Program to Solve Set Cover Problem
// assuming at Maximum 2 Elements in a Subset
  
// Importing input output classes
import java.io.*;
// Importing necessaely required utility classes
// from java.util package
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.Comparator;
import java.util.LinkedHashSet;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Set;
  
// Main class
public class GFG {
  
    // Interface
    // Declaring the interface thereby taking
    // abstract methods of the interface
    interface Filter<T> {
  
        boolean matches(T t);
    }
  
    // Method 1
    // Declaring a method-'shortcombo'
    // Declaring in form of set also returning a set
    private static <T> Set<T>
    shortcombo(Filter<Set<T> > filter, List<T> sets)
    {
        // Taking the size of the set
        final int size = sets.size();
  
        // Condition check
        // If the size of the set is greater than 25
        // We throw an exception like too many combinations
        if (size > 20)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                "Too many Combinations");
  
        // Now the comb will left shift 1 time of size
        int comb = 1 << size;
  
        // Taking a set with reg=ference possible
        // this Arraylist will contain all the possible
        // solution
        List<Set<T> > possible = new ArrayList<Set<T> >();
  
        // Taking a loop which iterates till comb
        for (int i = 0; i < comb; i++) {
  
            // Taking a lInkedHashSet of reference
            // combination
            Set<T> combination = new LinkedHashSet<T>();
  
            // Taking a loop and iterating till size
            for (int j = 0; j < size; j++) {
  
                // If now we right shift i and j
                // and then ending it with 1
  
                // This possible logic will give us how many
                // combinations are possible
                if (((i >> j) & 1) != 0)
  
                    // Now the combinations are added to the
                    // set
                    combination.add(sets.get(j));
            }
  
            // It is added to the possible reference
            possible.add(combination);
        }
  
        // Collections can be now sorted accordingly
        // using the sort() method over Collections class 
        Collections.sort(
            possible, new Comparator<Set<T> >() {
                
                // We can find the minimum length by taking
                // the difference between sizes of possible
                // list
                public int compare(Set<T> a1, Set<T> a2)
                {
                    return a1.size() - a2.size();
                }
            });
  
        // Now we take the iteration till possible
        for (Set<T> possibleSol : possible) {
  
            // Then we check for matching of the possible
            // solution
  
            // If it does we return the solution
            // If it doesnot we return null
            if (filter.matches(possibleSol))
                return possibleSol;
        }
        return null;
    }
  
    // Method 2
    // Main method
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
  
        // Taking all the the possible combinations
        // Custom entries in array
        Integer[][] all = {
            { 1, 2 },  { 3, 4 }, { 8, 9 },
            { 10, 7 }, { 5, 8 }, { 11, 6 },
            { 4, 5 },  { 6, 7 }, { 10, 11 },
        };
  
        // Here is the list of numbers to be chosen from
        // Again, custom entries in array
        Integer[] solution
            = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 };
  
        // Here let us take set as an object of an ArrayList
        List<Set<Integer> > sets
            = new ArrayList<Set<Integer> >();
  
        // Now taking an array of the function all
        for (Integer[] array : all)
  
            // Now taking those elements and adding them to
            // an LinkedHashSet
            sets.add(new LinkedHashSet<Integer>(
                Arrays.asList(array)));
  
        // Now taking a set integer sol and
        // setting it as solution
        final Set<Integer> sol = new LinkedHashSet<Integer>(
            Arrays.asList(solution));
  
        // Now taking a filter to check the values
        Filter<Set<Set<Integer> > > filter
            = new Filter<Set<Set<Integer> > >() {
                  // Now taking boolean function matches
  
                  // This function helps iterate all values
                  // over the inetegrs variable which adds
                  // up all that to an union which will give
                  // us the desired result
                  public boolean matches(
                      Set<Set<Integer> > integers)
                  {
                      Set<Integer> union
                          = new LinkedHashSet<Integer>();
  
                      // Iterating using for-each loop
                      for (Set<Integer> ints : integers)
                          union.addAll(ints);
  
                      return union.equals(sol);
                  }
              };
  
        // Now the below set will call the short combo
        // function This function will sort the shortest
        // combo
        Set<Set<Integer> > firstSol
            = shortcombo(filter, sets);
  
        // Print and display out the same
        System.out.println("The short combination was : "
                           + firstSol);
    }
}
Output
The short combination was : [[1, 2], [3, 4], [8, 9], [10, 7], [5, 8], [11, 6]]

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