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Java Program to Optimize Wire Length in Electrical Circuit
  • Difficulty Level : Expert
  • Last Updated : 28 Jan, 2021

Given n electric components and m electric wires to connect them where each wire has a length. Find the optimized wire length between the two components.

Example

Input :  Source = A

            Destination = C



Output: 4

Explanation: There are five different paths from node A to node C i.e., A->B->C, A->B->D->C, A->D->C, A->E->D->C, A->D->B->C.  But the path with smallest or optimized length is A->E->D->C with length as 4.

Approach

Given n components and m wires constitute an undirected weighted graph. The task is to calculate the optimized length between two components i.e., the minimum length between the two components. The problem is an application of Dijkstra’s algorithm. Since the source is available, the shortest length from the source to all nodes can be calculated using Dijkstra’s algorithm. This will give the shortest possible length between the given node source and all other nodes as an array. Now, the shortest length can be given from the source to destination using this array. Let’s understand this with the help of an example.

Example :

Input:    Source = A

              Destination = D



Output: 9

Explanation: Use Dijkstra’s algorithm to calculate shortest length from source A to all other nodes.

      Vertex        Distance from source

         A                   0

         B                   4

         C                   5

         D                   9

         E                   5

         F                   6

         G                   8

The shortest length can be found for any component from source A. Final answer will be the shortest length from A to D i.e., 9.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

Java




// Java program for implementation
// of above approach
import java.util.*;
  
class GFG {
  
    // n is no. of nodes and m is no. of edges
    public static int n, m;
  
    // adjacency list representation of graph
    public static List<List<Node> > graph
        = new ArrayList<List<Node> >();
  
    // source and destination points for shortest path
    public static int src, dest;
  
    static class Node {
  
        // node's label
        public int label;
  
        // length of edge to this node
        public int length;
  
        public Node(int v, int w)
        {
            label = v;
            length = w;
        }
    }
  
    // Driver program
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception
    {
        n = 5;
        m = 7;
  
        // Initialize adjacency list structure
        // to empty lists:
        for (int i = 0; i <= n; i++) {
            List<Node> item = new ArrayList<Node>();
            graph.add(item);
        }
  
        graph.get(1).add(new Node(2, 2));
        graph.get(2).add(new Node(1, 2));
  
        graph.get(1).add(new Node(4, 4));
        graph.get(4).add(new Node(1, 4));
  
        graph.get(1).add(new Node(5, 2));
        graph.get(5).add(new Node(1, 2));
  
        graph.get(4).add(new Node(5, 1));
        graph.get(5).add(new Node(4, 1));
  
        graph.get(2).add(new Node(4, 3));
        graph.get(4).add(new Node(2, 3));
  
        graph.get(2).add(new Node(3, 3));
        graph.get(3).add(new Node(2, 3));
  
        graph.get(4).add(new Node(3, 1));
        graph.get(3).add(new Node(4, 1));
  
        // Source node
        src = 1;
  
        // Destination node
        dest = 3;
  
        dijkstra();
    }
  
    // Function to implement Dijkstra's algorithm
    public static void dijkstra()
    {
  
        // array to keep track of unvisited nodes
        boolean[] done = new boolean[n + 1];
  
        // node array to keep track of path
        // from source to all other nodes
        Node[] table = new Node[n + 1];
  
        // intialise all nodes
        for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++)
            table[i] = new Node(-1, Integer.MAX_VALUE);
  
        // source to source length is 0
        table[src].length = 0;
  
        // Dijkstra's algorithm implementation
        for (int count = 1; count <= n; count++) {
            int min = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
            int minNode = -1;
  
            // find the minimum length node
            // from unvisited nodes
            for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
                if (!done[i] && table[i].length < min) {
                    min = table[i].length;
                    minNode = i;
                }
            }
  
            // visit the minNode
            done[minNode] = true;
  
            // iterator to traverse all connected
            // nodes to minNode
            ListIterator iter
                = graph.get(minNode).listIterator();
            while (iter.hasNext()) {
                Node nd = (Node)iter.next();
                int v = nd.label;
                int w = nd.length;
  
                // update the distance from minNode
                // of unvisited nodes
                if (!done[v]
                    && table[minNode].length + w
                           < table[v].length) {
                    table[v].length
                        = table[minNode].length + w;
                    table[v].label = minNode;
                }
            }
        }
  
        // length is now available rom source to all nodes
        System.out.println("Wire froms " + dest + " to "
                           + src + " with length "
                           + table[dest].length);
        int next = table[dest].label;
        System.out.print("Path is : " + dest + " ");
  
        // path from destination to source via all
        // intermediate nodes with minimum length
        while (next >= 0) {
            System.out.print(next + " ");
            next = table[next].label;
        }
        System.out.println();
    }
}
Output
Wire froms 3 to 1 with length 4
Path is : 3 4 5 1 

Time Complexity: Time Complexity for the above implementation of Dijkstra’s algorithm is O(n^2).

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