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Java Program to Find the Determinant of a Matrix
  • Last Updated : 17 Mar, 2021

The Determinant of a Matrix is a real number that can be defined for square matrices only i.e, the number of rows and columns of the matrices must be equal. Moreover, it is helpful in determining the system of the linear equation as well as figuring the inverse of the stated matrix.

Procedure to calculate:

  • First, we need to calculate the cofactor of all the elements of the matrix in the first row or first column.
  • Then, multiply each element of the first row or first column with their respective cofactor.
  • At last, we need to add them up with alternate signs.

Example:

  • Determinant of 2*2 matrix:
[4, 3]
[2, 3]

= (4*3)-(3*2)
= 12-6
= 6
  • Determinant of 3*3 matrix:
[1, 3, -2]
[-1, 2, 1]
[1, 0, -2]

= 1(-4-0)-3(2-1)+(-2)(0-2)
= -4-3+4
= -3

Note:

  1. The determinant of 1*1 matrix is the element itself.
  2. The Cofactor of any element of the stated matrix can be calculated by eliminating the row and the column of that element from the matrix stated.

Let’s see an example in order to get a clear concept of the above topic.

Example: Using Recursion



Java




// Java program to find
// Deteminant of a matrix
class GFG {
  
    // Dimension of input square matrix
    static final int N = 2;
  
    // Function to get cofactor of
    // mat[p][q] in temp[][]. n is
    // current dimension of mat[][]
    static void getCofactor(int mat[][], int temp[][],
                            int p, int q, int n)
    {
        int i = 0, j = 0;
  
        // Looping for each element
        // of the matrix
        for (int row = 0; row < n; row++) {
            for (int col = 0; col < n; col++) {
                // Copying into temporary matrix
                // only those element which are
                // not in given row and column
                if (row != p && col != q) {
                    temp[i][j++] = mat[row][col];
                    // Row is filled, so increase
                    // row index and reset col index
                    if (j == n - 1) {
                        j = 0;
                        i++;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
  
    /* Recursive function for finding determinant
    of matrix. n is current dimension of mat[][]. */
    static int determinantOfMatrix(int mat[][], int n)
    {
        int D = 0; // Initialize result
  
        // Base case : if matrix
        // contains single element
        if (n == 1)
            return mat[0][0];
  
        // To store cofactors
        int temp[][] = new int[N][N];
  
        // To store sign multiplier
        int sign = 1;
  
        // Iterate for each element of first row
        for (int f = 0; f < n; f++) {
            // Getting Cofactor of mat[0][f]
            getCofactor(mat, temp, 0, f, n);
            D += sign * mat[0][f]
                 * determinantOfMatrix(temp, n - 1);
  
            // terms are to be added
            // with alternate sign
            sign = -sign;
        }
  
        return D;
    }
  
    /* function for displaying the matrix */
    static void display(int mat[][], int row, int col)
    {
        for (int i = 0; i < row; i++) {
            for (int j = 0; j < col; j++)
                System.out.print(mat[i][j]);
  
            System.out.print("\n");
        }
    }
  
    // Driver code
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
  
        int mat[][] = { { 4, 3 }, { 2, 3 } };
  
        System.out.print("Determinant "
                         + "of the matrix is : "
                         + determinantOfMatrix(mat, N));
    }
}
Output
Determinant of the matrix is : 6

Time complexity: O(n3

Example: Non-recursion Implementation

Java




// Java program to find Deteminant of a matrix
class GFG {
  
    // Dimension of input square matrix
    static final int N = 4;
  
    // Function to get determinant of matrix
    static int determinantOfMatrix(int mat[][], int n)
    {
        int num1, num2, det = 1, index,
                        total = 1; // Initialize result
  
        // temporary array for storing row
        int[] temp = new int[n + 1];
  
        // loop for traversing the diagonal elements
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            index = i; // initialize the index
  
            // finding the index which has non zero value
            while (mat[index][i] == 0 && index < n) {
                index++;
            }
            if (index == n) // if there is non zero element
            {
                // the determinat of matrix as zero
                continue;
            }
            if (index != i) {
                // loop for swaping the diagonal element row
                // and index row
                for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
                    swap(mat, index, j, i, j);
                }
                // determinant sign changes when we shift
                // rows go through determinant properties
                det = (int)(det * Math.pow(-1, index - i));
            }
  
            // storing the values of diagonal row elements
            for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
                temp[j] = mat[i][j];
            }
  
            // traversing every row below the diagonal
            // element
            for (int j = i + 1; j < n; j++) {
                num1 = temp[i]; // value of diagonal element
                num2 = mat[j]
                          [i]; // value of next row element
  
                // traversing every column of row
                // and multiplying to every row
                for (int k = 0; k < n; k++) {
                    // multiplying to make the diagonal
                    // element and next row element equal
                    mat[j][k] = (num1 * mat[j][k])
                                - (num2 * temp[k]);
                }
                total = total * num1; // Det(kA)=kDet(A);
            }
        }
  
        // mulitplying the diagonal elements to get
        // determinant
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            det = det * mat[i][i];
        }
        return (det / total); // Det(kA)/k=Det(A);
    }
  
    static int[][] swap(int[][] arr, int i1, int j1, int i2,
                        int j2)
    {
        int temp = arr[i1][j1];
        arr[i1][j1] = arr[i2][j2];
        arr[i2][j2] = temp;
        return arr;
    }
  
    // Driver code
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        int mat[][] = { { 1, 0, 2, -1 },
                        { 3, 0, 0, 5 },
                        { 2, 1, 4, -3 },
                        { 1, 0, 5, 0 } };
  
        // Function call
        System.out.printf(
            "Determinant of the matrix is : %d",
            determinantOfMatrix(mat, N));
    }
}
Output
Determinant of the matrix is : 30

Time complexity: O(n3

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