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Java Program to Find a Good Feedback Vertex Set in a Graph
  • Last Updated : 12 May, 2021

A feedback vertex set of a graph is a set of vertices whose removal leaves a graph without cycles. The following graph becomes a Directed acyclic Graph.         

Examples:

Input:
Enter the number of vertices:  
4
Enter the number of edges:  
5
Enter the graph: <Start> <end>
1 2
2 3
3 4
4 1
1 3
Output:
The Graph is:
1-> 2-> 3
2-> 3
3-> 4
4-> 1
The set of edges in FeedBack arc set: 2 - 3
4 - 1

Input:
Enter the number of vertices:  
5
Enter the number of edges:  
5
Enter the graph: <Start> <end>
1 2
2 4
5 3
5 1
4 3.
Output:
The Graph is:
1-> 2
2-> 4
4-> 3
5-> 3-> 1
The set of edges in FeedBack arc set: None

Approach:

  • We will declare all the needed variables, like count, edges, start, end and vertices
  • Now we will call the Graph Function: we will take and store the values in an adjacent list which will be declared as a variable of the class.
  • Then keeping the while condition in, we will take the input of all the starting and ending points of a constructor in a graph.
  • Now calling the set edge function: we check if the adjacent list is empty, if not we will store the values of it, in it.
  • Then we call the printGraph() function– This method will basically print the graph, wherein we iterate the loop and print the elements, and we store it in a list
  • Then we call the object of the class and call the check function — Each iterator checks if we have taken the value only a single time If the value is repeated we remove it
  • Then we set the Feedback vertex and call the function -We would now check if we have visited all the nodes, if we did we would count it, and if we didn’t we would keep it equal to 1. Now using all this we would find which node can be removed.

Code:

Java




// Java Program to Find a Good Feedback Vertex Set in a
// Graph
 
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.LinkedList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Scanner;
 
// Let us declare a class
class Edge
 
{
 
    // We have declared a Map with Integer as its parameters
    // Named adjacentList
 
    private Map<Integer, List<Integer> > adjacentList;
 
    // Now lets us declare a function called "Graph"
    public Edge(int vertices)
    {
        // Now taking the new List as a HashMap
        adjacentList
            = new HashMap<Integer, List<Integer> >();
 
        // Iterating i from 1 till vertices
        for (int i = 1; i <= vertices; i++) {
            // Adding them to a new LinkedList
            adjacentList.put(i, new LinkedList<Integer>());
        }
    }
 
    // We are now declaring  a class edge
    // It has two parameters start and end
    public void set_Edge(int end, int start)
    {
        // We will write the condition for checking
        // If the the vertices are empty
        if (end > adjacentList.size()
            || start > adjacentList.size())
 
            System.out.println("There are no vertices");
 
        // Now if the input isn't zero
        // We will add them to a new list
        List<Integer> fls = adjacentList.get(start);
 
        fls.add(end);
    }
 
    // We created a list function called get edge
    // Help us to return the edges of a Graph
    public List<Integer> get_Edge(int end)
    {
 
        // Returning the edges back
        return adjacentList.get(end);
    }
 
    // Now let us check
    public Edge check()
    {
 
        // Now let us keep the count as 0
        Integer count = 0;
 
        // Let us iterator for easy function
        Iterator<Integer> iterator
            = this.adjacentList.keySet().iterator();
 
        // Let us take a size variable of adjacent List
        Integer size = this.adjacentList.size() - 1;
 
        // Iterating it till the end of the loop
        while (iterator.hasNext()) {
 
            // Now taking the variable which is an iterator
            Integer i = iterator.next();
 
            // Declaring a new list adjlist
            List<Integer> adjList
                = this.adjacentList.get(i);
 
            // checking for equal size we would return the
            // same
            if (count == size) {
                return this;
            }
 
            // Now keeping the condition adjList==0
            if (adjList.size() == 0) {
 
                // Every time we run the if
                // we increase the count
                count++;
 
                // Now taking an iterator Right
                Iterator<Integer> iteratorR
                    = this.adjacentList.keySet().iterator();
 
                // Again iterating completely over the new
                // Iterator
                while (iteratorR.hasNext()) {
 
                    // Having the new R , help us to iterate
                    // the new Iterator
                    Integer R = iteratorR.next();
 
                    // New List is taken
 
                    List<Integer> lit
                        = this.adjacentList.get(R);
 
                    // This if condition will help not to
                    // have
 
                    // Any duplicate values inside the new
                    // List
                    if (lit.contains(i)) {
                        // If we have one we would remove it
 
                        lit.remove(i);
                    }
                }
 
                // The below line would help us to remove
                // the values
 
                // Of the adjacent List as we move on to
                // make the vertices
 
                // The other values are simultaneously
                // removed.
                this.adjacentList.remove(i);
 
                iterator
                    = this.adjacentList.keySet().iterator();
            }
        }
 
        return this;
    }
 
    // This function helps us to print a graph
    public void printGraph()
 
    {
 
        System.out.println("The Graph is:");
 
        // Now let us taken an iterator and try to print it
 
        // This iterator contains the values of the new
        // graph
        Iterator<Integer> iterator
            = this.adjacentList.keySet().iterator();
 
        // Now  iterating the values
        while (iterator.hasNext())
 
        {
 
            // taking the variable i to be the next Iterator
            Integer i = iterator.next();
 
            // Taking a list which will help us have the
            // side edges.
            List<Integer> edgeList = this.get_Edge(i);
 
            // Now checking the edge list if it is not zero
            if (edgeList.size() != 0)
 
            {
 
                // print them out
                System.out.print(i);
 
                // now iterating it till edgelist
                for (int j = 0; j < edgeList.size(); j++)
 
                {
 
                    // Now printing the graph in its pattern
                    System.out.print("-> "
                                     + edgeList.get(j));
                }
 
                System.out.println();
            }
        }
    }
 
    // Closing the function
 
    // Now finding the FeedbackArc set
    public boolean getFeedbackArcSet(int vertices)
 
    {
 
        // Taking boolean flag false
        boolean flag = false;
 
        // Now taking visited array
        // This array length is vertices+1
        int[] visited = new int[vertices + 1];
 
        // This iterator has values of adjacent list
        Iterator<Integer> iterator
            = this.adjacentList.keySet().iterator();
 
        // Now let us see the feedback arc
        System.out.print(
            "The set of edges in FeedBack arc set: ");
 
        // Now it has iterator which is next
        while (iterator.hasNext())
 
        {
 
            // Now taking i which will be iterating next
            Integer i = iterator.next();
 
            // Now taking a list of values adjacent list
            List<Integer> list = this.adjacentList.get(i);
 
            // Visited array to be after i
            visited[i] = 1;
 
            // Now taking if the list size not equal to 0
            if (list.size() != 0)
 
            {
 
                // We iterate till list sie
                for (int j = 0; j < list.size(); j++)
 
                {
 
                    // If we have visited the list
                    // e will flag it to be true
                    if (visited[list.get(j)] == 1)
 
                    {
 
                        flag = true;
 
                        // Now taking the output of feedback
                        // arc
                        System.out.println(i + " - "
                                           + list.get(j));
                    }
 
                    else
 
                    {
 
                        // Now if we dint visit
                        // We will be iterating it to 1
                        visited[list.get(j)] = 1;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
 
        // Return the flag
        return flag;
    }
}
 
// Now let us declare the class GFG
 
class GFG {
 
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
 
        // Now let us declare and initialize all the
        // variables
        int vertices = 4, e = 5, count = 1;
        int[] start = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 1 };
        int[] end = { 2, 3, 4, 1, 3 };
 
        // Now let us see  the object of the class
        Edge ist;
 
        // Now let us try the exception.
        try
 
        {
 
            // printing both the values
            System.out.println("Number of vertices: "
                               + vertices);
 
            System.out.println("Number of edges: " + e);
 
            // Now calling the function
            ist = new Edge(vertices);
 
            // calling the function by iterating the loop
            for (int i = 0; i < e; i++)
 
            {
 
                // Now calling the function set_edge
                ist.set_Edge(end[i], start[i]);
            }
 
            // Now we are calling the print Graph Function
            ist.printGraph();
 
            // Now we will call the object of class
            // and then we called the function check
            Edge modified = ist.check();
 
            // If we dont get the flag to be true
            // We can print the output to be None or empty
            if (modified.getFeedbackArcSet(vertices)
                == false)
 
            {
 
                System.out.println("None");
            }
        }
 
        // Try for catch
        // We print empty nodes
        catch (Exception E)
 
        {
 
            System.out.println("Empty Nodes");
        }
    }
}

 
 



Output
Number of vertices: 4
Number of edges: 5
The Graph is:
1-> 2-> 3
2-> 3
3-> 4
4-> 1
The set of edges in FeedBack arc set: 2 - 3
4 - 1

 

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