As the name suggests where there is an execution to be operated required to deal with digits of the number, the modulo operator plays a vital role. Here the goal is to extract the last digits of a number. So making the problem easier to think about what if the goal is to extract the last digit from a number. Here in this case number is representing the year. The mathematical concept involved in extracting the last is to divide the given number by such a number that the remainder should be the same as that of the last digit. In order to extract the last digit that number with which the given number has to be divided must be 10.

Modulo is represented by ‘%’ and is used to get the remainder

**Example:** Extracting Last One Digit From A Number

Random Number = 1997 Last Digit = 7 Goal: 1997 % (x) = 7 // Goal is Divide 1997 by x such that remainder is 7 if x = 10 // 1997 % 10 = 7 that is the last digit

Now, in order to extract the last two digits, we will be treating the number with the same approach just the given number will be modulo by 100 as per the mathematics unit standard.

Example: Extracting the Last Two-Digit From A Number

Input: year = 2020Output: 20Input: year = 1983Output: 83Input: year = 2000Output: 00

**We can implement this using 2 different methods:**

- Using Modulo Arithmetic Operator
- Using String substring() method

**A. Using ****Modulo Arithmetic Operator****:** We can use the modulo operator (%) to extract the last two digits by taking the modulo of the year by 100.

Internal Working Of Mathematics Unit System

Let us consider 1983, we can write it as 1983 = 1*1000 + 9*100 + 8*10 + 3 So when we take modulo by 100, we will just have the last two digits as remainder. 1983 % 100 = 1*1000 % 100 + 9*100 % 100 + 8*10 % 100 + 3 % 100 = 0 + 0 + 8*10 + 3 = 83

The implementation of the above approach is described below

## Java

`// Java code to extract last two digits of a year ` ` ` `// Importing Classes/Files ` `import` `java.util.*; ` ` ` `public` `class` `GFG { ` ` ` ` ` `// Main Driver Code ` ` ` `public` `static` `void` `main(String args[]) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `// Initializing year as String ` ` ` `int` `year = ` `1983` `; ` ` ` ` ` `// Printing last two digits of a number ` ` ` `// by modulo with 100 ` ` ` `System.out.print(year % ` `100` `); ` ` ` `} ` `}` |

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**Output**

83

**B. Using ****String substring() method****:** This method returns a new string that is a substring of the given string. Thus, to extract the last two digits we need to get the substring after index 2.

## Java

`// Java code to extract last two digits of a year ` `public` `class` `GFG { ` ` ` ` ` `// Function to extract last to digits of a year ` ` ` `static` `int` `extractLastTwo(String year) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `// using substring() to extract the last two digit ` ` ` `// as substring ` ` ` `String lastTwoDigits = year.substring(` `2` `); ` ` ` ` ` `return` `Integer.parseInt( ` ` ` `lastTwoDigits); ` `// Returning last two digits as ` ` ` `// an integer ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `public` `static` `void` `main(String args[]) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `// Initializing year as String ` ` ` `String year = ` `"1983"` `; ` ` ` ` ` `System.out.print(extractLastTwo(year)); ` ` ` `} ` `} ` |

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**Output**

83

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