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Java Program to Convert Hexadecimal to Binary
  • Last Updated : 27 Nov, 2020

The Hexadecimal is a very useful Number System based on the premise of clubbing together 4 bits at a time to constitute a single entity of the system which is composed of 16 symbols including 10 digits ranging from 0-9 and the first six alphabets from A-F. The word Hexadecimal is derived from the words Hex which means six and decimal which means ten

Thus the combined word denotes sixteen which is six and ten added together. The Hexadecimal Sequences are also referred to as the base or radix 16. While dealing with different Number Systems, it becomes essential to be able to convert them from one system to another. In this article, we focus on converting Hexadecimal to Binary, which is a system comprised of 1’s and 0’s and is the mechanism through which the computers store and process instructions as well as data. 

Examples :

Hexadecimal Sequence : 458A
Binary Equivalent : 0100010110001010
Explanation : Binary representation of A : 1010
          Binary representation of 8 : 1000
          Binary representation of 5 : 0101
          Binary representation of 4 : 0100

Hexadecimal Sequence : B36
Binary Equivalent : 101100110110

There are two approaches to convert Hexadecimal to Binary and they are mentioned as follows :



  1. Using the key-value pair for the corresponding conversion from the Hexadecimal character to its Binary equivalent
  2. Converting the Hexadecimal to its Decimal equivalent which is further converted to its Binary equivalent

Approach 1 :

Using this approach, we formulate key-value and extracting every character of the Hexadecimal string, add its corresponding binary sequence and return the complete binary sequence.

  1. Create a HashMap to store the key-value pairs.
  2. Accept the Hexadecimal sequence as a string and extract each character while iterating through the length of the string.
  3. Check if the extracted character is present in the keys of the HashMap.
  4. If it is present, concatenate the string storing the binary sequence with the corresponding value of the key.
  5. If it is not present, return Invalid Hexadecimal String.

Code:

Java




// Java program to convert Hexadecimal to Binary
  
import java.util.HashMap;
  
class GFG {
  
    // declaring the method to convert
    // Hexadecimal to Binary
    String hexToBinary(String hex)
    {
  
        // variable to store the converted
        // Binary Sequence
        String binary = "";
  
        // converting the accepted Hexadecimal
        // string to upper case
        hex = hex.toUpperCase();
  
        // initializing the HashMap class
        HashMap<Character, String> hashMap
            = new HashMap<Character, String>();
  
        // storing the key value pairs
        hashMap.put('0', "0000");
        hashMap.put('1', "0001");
        hashMap.put('2', "0010");
        hashMap.put('3', "0011");
        hashMap.put('4', "0100");
        hashMap.put('5', "0101");
        hashMap.put('6', "0110");
        hashMap.put('7', "0111");
        hashMap.put('8', "1000");
        hashMap.put('9', "1001");
        hashMap.put('A', "1010");
        hashMap.put('B', "1011");
        hashMap.put('C', "1100");
        hashMap.put('D', "1101");
        hashMap.put('E', "1110");
        hashMap.put('F', "1111");
  
        int i;
        char ch;
  
        // loop to iterate through the length
        // of the Hexadecimal String
        for (i = 0; i < hex.length(); i++) {
            // extracting each character
            ch = hex.charAt(i);
  
            // checking if the character is
            // present in the keys
            if (hashMap.containsKey(ch))
  
                // adding to the Binary Sequence
                // the corresponding value of
                // the key
                binary += hashMap.get(ch);
  
            // returning Invalid Hexadecimal
            // String if the character is
            // not present in the keys
            else {
                binary = "Invalid Hexadecimal String";
                return binary;
            }
        }
  
        // returning the converted Binary
        return binary;
    }
  
    // Driver Code
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
  
        // instantiating the class
        GFG ob = new GFG();
        
        String hex = "deafa";
        
        System.out.println(hex.toUpperCase());
        
        // printing and calling the
        // hexToBinary() function
        System.out.println(ob.hexToBinary(hex));
    }
}
Output
DEAFA
11011110101011111010

Approach 2:

This approach first converts the Hexadecimal String into its decimal equivalent which is further converted into its binary equivalent. We make use of two functions, the first one to convert the Hexadecimal to Decimal and the second one to convert Decimal to Binary.

  1. First, we write the function to convert the Decimal to Binary.
  2. Next, we, write the function to convert Hexadecimal to Decimal and call the above function inside this function to convert the converted Decimal further into Binary.
  3. In this function, we iterate through the length of the Hexadecimal String and extract every character one at a time.
  4. Next, we check if the extracted characters are in the range 0-9 or A-F.
  5. If the characters are present in the above-mentioned range we concatenate them to the decimal string.
  6. Next, the decimal string is converted to Binary using the decimalToBinary() function.
  7. If even one of the characters is not present in the above-mentioned range, Invalid Hexadecimal String is returned as the output.

Code:

Java




// Java program to convert Hexadecimal to Binary
  
class GFG {
  
    // method to convert Decimal to Binary
    String decimalToBinary(int decimal)
    {
  
        // variable to store the converted
        // binary string
        String binaryString = "";
  
        // loop to generate the binary
        while (decimal != 0) {
  
            // concatenating the remainder
            // on dividing by 2 to the
            // binary string
            binaryString = (decimal % 2) + binaryString;
  
            // updating the decimal integer
            // by dividing by 2 in each iteration
            decimal /= 2;
        }
  
        // loop to ensure that each
        // Hexadecimal character is
        // represented by 4 bits
        while (binaryString.length() % 4 != 0) {
            // adding leading 0's if the
            // character is represented by less
            // than 4 bits
            binaryString = "0" + binaryString;
        }
  
        // returning the converted binary string
        return binaryString;
    }
  
    // method to convert Hexadecimal to Binary
    String hexToBinary(String hexadecimal)
    {
  
        // decalring the variables
        int i;
        char ch;
        String binary = "";
        int returnedBinary;
  
        // converting the accepted Hexadecimal
        // String to upper case
        hexadecimal = hexadecimal.toUpperCase();
  
        // loop to iterate thorugh the length
        // of the Hexadecimal String
        for (i = 0; i < hexadecimal.length(); i++) {
  
            // extracting the characters
            ch = hexadecimal.charAt(i);
  
            // condition to check if
            // the character is not a valid Hexadecimal
            // character
            if (Character.isDigit(ch) == false
                && ((int)ch >= 65 && (int)ch <= 70)
                       == false) {
  
                // returning Invalid Hexadecimal
                // String for the invalid Hexadecimal
                // character
                binary = "Invalid Hexadecimal String";
                return binary;
            }
  
            // checking if the character is a valid
            // Hexadecimal alphabet
            else if ((int)ch >= 65 && (int)ch <= 70)
  
                // converting alphabet to
                // corresponding value such as 10
                // for A and so on using ASCII code
                returnedBinary = (int)ch - 55;
            else
                returnedBinary
                    = Integer.parseInt(String.valueOf(ch));
  
            // converting the decimal to binary
            // by calling the decimalToBinary() method
            binary += decimalToBinary(returnedBinary);
        }
  
        // returning the converted binary sequence
        return binary;
    }
  
    // Driver Code
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
  
        // instantiating the class
        GFG ob = new GFG();
          
        String hex = "abcfde";
        
        System.out.println(hex);
        
        // printing and calling the
        // hexToBinary() function to display the
        // output
        System.out.println(ob.hexToBinary(hex));
    }
}
Output
abcfde
101010111100111111011110

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