Java Program for Cycle Sort

Cycle sort is an in-place sorting Algorithm, unstable sorting algorithm, a comparison sort that is theoretically optimal in terms of the total number of writes to the original array.

  • It is optimal in terms of number of memory writes. It minimizes the number of memory writes to sort (Each value is either written zero times, if it’s already in its correct position, or written one time to its correct position.)
  • It is based on the idea that array to be sorted can be divided into cycles. Cycles can be visualized as a graph. We have n nodes and an edge directed from node i to node j if the element at i-th index must be present at j-th index in the sorted array.
    Cycle in arr[] = {4, 5, 2, 1, 5}
    cycle-sort

    Cycle in arr[] = {4, 3, 2, 1}
    cyclc-sort2

We one by one consider all cycles. We first consider the cycle that includes first element. We find correct position of first element, place it at its correct position, say j. We consider old value of arr[j] and find its correct position, we keep doing this till all elements of current cycle are placed at correct position, i.e., we don\’t come back to cycle starting point.

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// Java program to impleament cycle sort
  
import java.util.*;
import java.lang.*;
  
class GFG
{
// Function sort the array using Cycle sort
    public static void cycleSort (int arr[], int n)
    {
        // count number of memory writes
        int writes = 0;
  
        // traverse array elements and put it to on
        // the right place
        for (int cycle_start=0; cycle_start<=n-2; cycle_start++)
        {
            // initialize item as starting point
            int item = arr[cycle_start];
  
            // Find position where we put the item. We basically
            // count all smaller elements on right side of item.
            int pos = cycle_start;
            for (int i = cycle_start+1; i<n; i++)
                if (arr[i] < item)
                    pos++;
  
            // If item is already in correct position
            if (pos == cycle_start)
                continue;
  
            // ignore all duplicate elements
            while (item == arr[pos])
                pos += 1;
  
            // put the item to it\'s right position
            if (pos != cycle_start)
            {
                int temp = item;
                item = arr[pos];
                arr[pos] = temp;
                writes++;
            }
  
            // Rotate rest of the cycle
            while (pos != cycle_start)
            {
                pos = cycle_start;
  
                // Find position where we put the element
                for (int i = cycle_start+1; i<n; i++)
                    if (arr[i] < item)
                        pos += 1;
  
                // ignore all duplicate elements
                while (item == arr[pos])
                    pos += 1;
  
                // put the item to it\'s right position
                if (item != arr[pos])
                {
                    int temp = item;
                    item = arr[pos];
                    arr[pos] = temp;
                    writes++;
                }
            }
        }
    }
  
// Driver program to test above function
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        int arr[] = {1, 8, 3, 9, 10, 10, 2, 4 };
        int n = arr.length;
        cycleSort(arr, n) ;
  
        System.out.println("After sort : ");
        for (int i =0; i<n; i++)
            System.out.print(arr[i] + " ");
    }
}
  
// Code Contributed by Mohit Gupta_OMG <(0_o)>

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Output:

After sort : 
1 2 3 4 8 9 10 10 

Please refer complete article on Cycle Sort for more details!



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