# Java Program for Breadth First Search or BFS for a Graph

Breadth First Traversal (or Search) for a graph is similar to Breadth First Traversal of a tree (See method 2 of this post). The only catch here is, unlike trees, graphs may contain cycles, so we may come to the same node again. To avoid processing a node more than once, we use a boolean visited array. For simplicity, it is assumed that all vertices are reachable from the starting vertex.

For example, in the following graph, we start traversal from vertex 2. When we come to vertex 0, we look for all adjacent vertices of it. 2 is also an adjacent vertex of 0. If we don’t mark visited vertices, then 2 will be processed again and it will become a non-terminating process. A Breadth First Traversal of the following graph is 2, 0, 3, 1.

## Recommended: Please solve it on “__PRACTICE__ ” first, before moving on to the solution.

__PRACTICE__Following are the implementations of simple Breadth First Traversal from a given source.

The implementation uses adjacency list representation of graphs. STL\’s list container is used to store lists of adjacent nodes and queue of nodes needed for BFS traversal.

## Java

`// Java program to print BFS traversal from a given source vertex.` `// BFS(int s) traverses vertices reachable from s.` `import` `java.io.*;` `import` `java.util.*;` ` ` `// This class represents a directed graph using adjacency list` `// representation` `class` `Graph` `{` ` ` `private` `int` `V; ` `// No. of vertices` ` ` `private` `LinkedList<Integer> adj[]; ` `//Adjacency Lists` ` ` ` ` `// Constructor` ` ` `Graph(` `int` `v)` ` ` `{` ` ` `V = v;` ` ` `adj = ` `new` `LinkedList[v];` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i=` `0` `; i<v; ++i)` ` ` `adj[i] = ` `new` `LinkedList();` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// Function to add an edge into the graph` ` ` `void` `addEdge(` `int` `v,` `int` `w)` ` ` `{` ` ` `adj[v].add(w);` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// prints BFS traversal from a given source s` ` ` `void` `BFS(` `int` `s)` ` ` `{` ` ` `// Mark all the vertices as not visited(By default` ` ` `// set as false)` ` ` `boolean` `visited[] = ` `new` `boolean` `[V];` ` ` ` ` `// Create a queue for BFS` ` ` `LinkedList<Integer> queue = ` `new` `LinkedList<Integer>();` ` ` ` ` `// Mark the current node as visited and enqueue it` ` ` `visited[s]=` `true` `;` ` ` `queue.add(s);` ` ` ` ` `while` `(queue.size() != ` `0` `)` ` ` `{` ` ` `// Dequeue a vertex from queue and print it` ` ` `s = queue.poll();` ` ` `System.out.print(s+` `" "` `);` ` ` ` ` `// Get all adjacent vertices of the dequeued vertex s` ` ` `// If a adjacent has not been visited, then mark it` ` ` `// visited and enqueue it` ` ` `Iterator<Integer> i = adj[s].listIterator();` ` ` `while` `(i.hasNext())` ` ` `{` ` ` `int` `n = i.next();` ` ` `if` `(!visited[n])` ` ` `{` ` ` `visited[n] = ` `true` `;` ` ` `queue.add(n);` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// Driver method to` ` ` `public` `static` `void` `main(String args[])` ` ` `{` ` ` `Graph g = ` `new` `Graph(` `4` `);` ` ` ` ` `g.addEdge(` `0` `, ` `1` `);` ` ` `g.addEdge(` `0` `, ` `2` `);` ` ` `g.addEdge(` `1` `, ` `2` `);` ` ` `g.addEdge(` `2` `, ` `0` `);` ` ` `g.addEdge(` `2` `, ` `3` `);` ` ` `g.addEdge(` `3` `, ` `3` `);` ` ` ` ` `System.out.println(` `"Following is Breadth First Traversal "` `+` ` ` `"(starting from vertex 2)"` `);` ` ` ` ` `g.BFS(` `2` `);` ` ` `}` `}` `// This code is contributed by Aakash Hasija` |

Please refer complete article on Breadth First Search or BFS for a Graph for more details!