Java.lang.Math Class in Java | Set 1

Math Class methods helps to perform the numeric operations like square, square root, cube, cube root, exponential and trigonometric operations

Declaration :

public final class Math
   extends Object

What is NaN argument ?
A constant holding a Not-a-Number (NaN) value of type double. It is equivalent to the value returned by Double.longBitsToDouble(0x7ff8000000000000L).

Methods of lang.math class :

  1. abs() : java.lang.Math.abs() method returns the absolute value of any type of argument passed. This method can handle all the data types.
      Special Case :

    • Result is positive zero, if the argument is positive zero or negative zero.
    • Result is positive infinity, if the argument is infinite.
    • Result is NaN, if passed argument is NaN.

    Syntax:

    public static datatype abs(datatype arg)
    Parameters:
    arg - the argument whose absolute value we need
    Returns:
    absolute value of the passed argument.
    
  2. acos() : java.lang.Math.acos() method returns the arc cosine value of the passed argument.
    arc cosine is inverse cosine of the argument passed.
    acos(arg) = cos-1 of arg
    Special Case : Result is NaN, if the argument is NaN or its absolute value is greater than 1.
    Syntax:

    public static double acos(double a)
    Parameters:
    a - the argument whose arc cosine value we need.
        argument is taken as radian    
    Returns:
    arc cosine value of the argument.
    
  3. toRadians() : java.lang.Math.toRadians(double deg) method converts argument (degree) to radians.
    Note: Math class usually takes radians as an input which is very much different in real life applications since angles is usually represented in degrees.
    Syntax:

    public static double toRadians(double deg)
    Parameters:
    deg - degree angle needs to be in radian.
    Returns:
    radians equivalent of the degree-argument passed.
    
  4. Java code explaining abs(), acos(), toRadians() method in lang.Math class.

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    // Java program explaining lang.Math class methods
    // abs(), acos(), toRadians()
      
    import java.lang.*;
    public class NewClass
    {
        public static void main(String[] args)
        {
            // Declaring the variables
            int Vali = -1;
            float Valf = .5f;
      
            // Printing the values
            System.out.println("Initial value of int  : "+Vali);
            System.out.println("Initial value of int  : "+Valf);
      
      
            // Use of .abs() method to get the absoluteValue
            int Absi = Math.abs(Vali);
            float Absf = Math.abs(Valf);
      
            System.out.println("Absolute value of int : "+Absi);
            System.out.println("Absolute value of int : "+Absf);
            System.out.println("");
      
            // Use of acos() method
            // Value greater than 1, so passing NaN
            double Acosi = Math.acos(60);
            System.out.println("acos value of Acosi : "+Acosi);
            double x = Math.PI;
      
            // Use of toRadian() method
            x = Math.toRadians(x);
            double Acosj = Math.acos(x);
            System.out.println("acos value of Acosj : "+Acosj);
              
        }
    }

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    Output :

    Initial value of int  : -1
    Initial value of int  : 0.5
    Absolute value of int : 1
    Absolute value of int : 0.5
    
    acos value of Acosi : NaN
    acos value of Acosj : 1.5159376794536454
    
  5. asin() : java.lang.Math.asin() method returns the arc sine value of the method argument passed. Returned angle is in the range -pi/2 to pi/2.
    arc sine is inverse sine of the argument passed.
    asin(arg) = sine-1 of arg
    Special Case :

    • Result is NaN,if the argument is NaN or its absolute value is greater than 1.
    • Result is a zero, if the argument is zero.

    Syntax:

    public static double asin(double arg)
    Parameters:
    arg - argument passed. 
    Returns:
    arc sine of the argument passed.
    
  6. cbrt() : java.lang.Math.cbrt() method returns the cube root of the passed argument.
    Special Point :

    • Result is NaN, if the argument is NaN.
    • Result is an infinity with the same sign as the argument, if the argument is infinite.
    • Result is a zero, if the argument is zero.

    Syntax:

    public static double cbrt(double arg)
    Parameters:
    arg - argument passed. 
    Returns:
    cube root of the argument passed
    
  7. Java code explaining asin(), cbrt() method in lang.Math class.

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    // Java program explaining lang.Math class methods
    // asin(), cbrt()
      
    import java.lang.*;
    public class NewClass
    {
      
        public static void main(String[] args)
        {
            int a = 1, b = 8;
            int radd = a+b;
      
            // Use of asin() method
            // Value greater than 1, so passing NaN
            double Asini = Math.asin(radd);
            System.out.println("asin value of Asini : " + Asini);
            double x = Math.PI;
      
            // Use of toRadian() method
            x = Math.toRadians(x);
            double Asinj = Math.asin(x);
            System.out.println("asin value of Asinj : " + Asinj);
            System.out.println("");
      
            // Use of cbrt() method
            double cbrtval = Math.cbrt(216);
            System.out.println("cube root : " + cbrtval);
      
        }
    }

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    Output :

    asin value of Asini : NaN
    asin value of Asinj : 0.054858647341251204
    
    cube root : 6.0
  8. floor() : java.lang.Math.floor() method returns the floor value of an argument i.e. the closest integer value which is either less or equal to the the passed argument.
    eg : 101.23 has floor value = 101
    Important point : Same argument is resulted if if passed an NaN or infinite argument.

    Syntax:
    public static double floor(double arg)
    Parameters:
    arg - the argument whose floor value we need
    Returns:closest possible value that is either less than 
                    or equal to the argument passed
    
  9. hypot() : java.lang.Math.hypot(double p, double b) method returns hypotenuse of a right triangle on passing the traingle’s base and perpendicular as arguments.
    hypotenuse = [perpendicular2 + base2]1/2

    Important Point :

    • If either argument is infinite, then the result is positive infinity.
    • If either argument is NaN and neither argument is infinite, then the result is NaN.
    Syntax:
    public static double hypot(double p, double b)
    Parameters:
    p - perpendicular of the right triangle
    b - base of the right triangle
    Returns:
    hypotenuse of the right triangle
    
  10. IEEEremainder() : java.lang.Math.IEEERemainder(double d1, double d2) method returns the remainder value by applying remainder operation on two arguments w.r.t IEEE 754 standard.
    Remainder value = d1 – d2 * n
    where,
    n = closest exact value of d1/d2

    Syntax:
    public static double IEEEremainder(double d1,double d2)
    Parameters:
    d1 - dividend 
    d2 - divisor
    Returns:
    remainder when f1(dividend) is divided by(divisor)
    
  11. log() : java.lang.Math.log() method returns the logarithmic value of the passed argument.
    Syntax:
    public static double log(double arg)
    Parameters:
    arg - argument passed. 
    Returns:
    logarithmic value of the argument passed.
    
  12. Java code explaining floor(), hypot(), IEEEremainder(), log() method in lang.Math class.

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    // Java program explaining lang.MATH class methods
    // floor(), hypot(), IEEEremainder(), log()
      
    import java.lang.*;
    public class NewClass
    {
      
        public static void main(String[] args)
        {
            // Use of floor method
            double f1 = 30.56, f2 = -56.34;
            f1 =Math.floor(f1);
            System.out.println("Floor value of f1 : "+f1);
      
            f2 =Math.floor(f2);
            System.out.println("Floor value of f2 : "+f2);
            System.out.println("");
      
            // Use of hypot() method
            double p = 12, b = -5;
            double h = Math.hypot(p, b);
            System.out.println("Hypotenuse : "+h);
            System.out.println("");
      
            // Use of IEEEremainder() method
            double d1 = 105, d2 = 2;
            double r = Math.IEEEremainder(d1,d2);
            System.out.println("Remainder : "+r);
            System.out.println("");
              
            // Use of log() method
            double l = 10;
            l = Math.log(l);
            System.out.println("Log value of 10 : "+l);
              
        }
    }

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    Output :

    Floor value of f1 : 30.0
    Floor value of f2 : -57.0
    
    Hypotenuse : 13.0
    
    Remainder : 1.0
    
    Log value of 10 : 2.302585092994046
    
  13. ceil() : java.lang.Math.ceil(double a) method returns the smallest possible value which is either greater or equal to the argument passed. The returned value is a mathematical integer.
      Special Case :

    • Result is same, if the returned value is already a mathematical integer.
    • Result is same, if the passed argument is NaN or infinte or zero.
    • Result is negative zero, if the passed argument is less than zero but greater than -1.0

    Syntax:

    public static double ceil(double arg)
    Parameters:
    arg - the argument value
    Returns:
    smallest possible value(mathematical intger)
    which is either greater or equal to the argument passed
    
  14. atan() : java.lang.Math.atan() method returns returns the arc tangent of the method argument value. The returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2.
    arc tan is inverse tan of the argument passed.
    atan(arg) = tan inverse of arg
    Special Case :

    • Result is NaN, if the passed argument is NaN or its absolute value is > 1.
    • Result is zero, if argument is zero.

    Syntax:

    public static double atan(double a)
    Parameters:
    a - the argument whose arc tangent value we need.
        argument is taken as radian
    Returns:
    arc tan value of the argument.
    
  15. copySign() : java.lang.Math.copySign() method returns first floating-point argument but having the sign of second argument.
    Syntax:

    public static double copySign(double m, double s)
                        or
    public static float copySign(float m, float s)
    Parameters:
    m - magnitude 
    s - sign 
    Returns:
    returns second argument with sign of first floating-point argument.
    
  16. Java code explaining atan(), ceil(), copySign() method in lang.Math class.

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    // Java program explaining lang.Math class methods
    // atan(), ceil(), copySign()
      
    import java.math.*;
    public class NewClass
    {
        public static void main(String[] args)
        {
            // Use of atan() method
            double Atani = Math.atan(0);
            System.out.println("atan value of Atani : "+Atani);
            double x = Math.PI/2;
      
            // Use of toRadian() method
            x = Math.toRadians(x);
            double Atanj = Math.atan(x);
            System.out.println("atan value of Atanj : "+Atanj);
            System.out.println("");
      
      
            // Use of ceil() method
            double val = 15.34 ,ceilval;
            ceilval = Math.ceil(val);
            System.out.println("ceil value of val : "+ceilval);
            System.out.println("");
      
            double dblMag = val;
            double dblSign1 = 3;
            double dblSign2 = -3;
      
      
            // Use of copySign() method
            double result1 = Math.copySign(dblMag,dblSign1);
            System.out.println("copySign1 : "+result1);
      
            double result2 = Math.copySign(dblMag,dblSign2);
            System.out.println("copySign2 : "+result2);
              
        }
    }

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    Output :

    atan value of Atani : 0.0
    atan value of Atanj : 0.0274087022410345
    
    ceil value of val : 16.0
    
    copySign1 : 15.34
    copySign2 : -15.34

    Next Article: Java.lang.math | Set 2
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