Java.lang.Math Class in Java | Set 1

Math Class methods helps to perform the numeric operations like square, square root, cube, cube root, exponential and trigonometric operations

Declaration :

public final class Math
extends Object

What is NaN argument ?
A constant holding a Not-a-Number (NaN) value of type double. It is equivalent to the value returned by Double.longBitsToDouble(0x7ff8000000000000L).

Methods of lang.math class :

1. abs() : java.lang.Math.abs() method returns the absolute value of any type of argument passed. This method can handle all the data types.
Special Case :

• Result is positive zero, if the argument is positive zero or negative zero.
• Result is positive infinity, if the argument is infinite.
• Result is NaN, if passed argument is NaN.

Syntax:

public static datatype abs(datatype arg)
Parameters:
arg - the argument whose absolute value we need
Returns:
absolute value of the passed argument.

2. acos() : java.lang.Math.acos() method returns the arc cosine value of the passed argument.
arc cosine is inverse cosine of the argument passed.
acos(arg) = cos-1 of arg
Special Case : Result is NaN, if the argument is NaN or its absolute value is greater than 1.
Syntax:

public static double acos(double a)
Parameters:
a - the argument whose arc cosine value we need.
argument is taken as radian
Returns:
arc cosine value of the argument.

3. toRadians() : java.lang.Math.toRadians(double deg) method converts argument (degree) to radians.
Note: Math class usually takes radians as an input which is very much different in real life applications since angles is usually represented in degrees.
Syntax:

public static double toRadians(double deg)
Parameters:
deg - degree angle needs to be in radian.
Returns:
radians equivalent of the degree-argument passed.

4. Java code explaining abs(), acos(), toRadians() method in lang.Math class.

 // Java program explaining lang.Math class methods // abs(), acos(), toRadians()    import java.lang.*; public class NewClass {     public static void main(String[] args)     {         // Declaring the variables         int Vali = -1;         float Valf = .5f;            // Printing the values         System.out.println("Initial value of int  : "+Vali);         System.out.println("Initial value of int  : "+Valf);               // Use of .abs() method to get the absoluteValue         int Absi = Math.abs(Vali);         float Absf = Math.abs(Valf);            System.out.println("Absolute value of int : "+Absi);         System.out.println("Absolute value of int : "+Absf);         System.out.println("");            // Use of acos() method         // Value greater than 1, so passing NaN         double Acosi = Math.acos(60);         System.out.println("acos value of Acosi : "+Acosi);         double x = Math.PI;            // Use of toRadian() method         x = Math.toRadians(x);         double Acosj = Math.acos(x);         System.out.println("acos value of Acosj : "+Acosj);                } }

Output :

Initial value of int  : -1
Initial value of int  : 0.5
Absolute value of int : 1
Absolute value of int : 0.5

acos value of Acosi : NaN
acos value of Acosj : 1.5159376794536454

5. asin() : java.lang.Math.asin() method returns the arc sine value of the method argument passed. Returned angle is in the range -pi/2 to pi/2.
arc sine is inverse sine of the argument passed.
asin(arg) = sine-1 of arg
Special Case :

• Result is NaN,if the argument is NaN or its absolute value is greater than 1.
• Result is a zero, if the argument is zero.

Syntax:

public static double asin(double arg)
Parameters:
arg - argument passed.
Returns:
arc sine of the argument passed.

6. cbrt() : java.lang.Math.cbrt() method returns the cube root of the passed argument.
Special Point :

• Result is NaN, if the argument is NaN.
• Result is an infinity with the same sign as the argument, if the argument is infinite.
• Result is a zero, if the argument is zero.

Syntax:

public static double cbrt(double arg)
Parameters:
arg - argument passed.
Returns:
cube root of the argument passed

7. Java code explaining asin(), cbrt() method in lang.Math class.

 // Java program explaining lang.Math class methods // asin(), cbrt()    import java.lang.*; public class NewClass {        public static void main(String[] args)     {         int a = 1, b = 8;         int radd = a+b;            // Use of asin() method         // Value greater than 1, so passing NaN         double Asini = Math.asin(radd);         System.out.println("asin value of Asini : " + Asini);         double x = Math.PI;            // Use of toRadian() method         x = Math.toRadians(x);         double Asinj = Math.asin(x);         System.out.println("asin value of Asinj : " + Asinj);         System.out.println("");            // Use of cbrt() method         double cbrtval = Math.cbrt(216);         System.out.println("cube root : " + cbrtval);        } }

Output :

asin value of Asini : NaN
asin value of Asinj : 0.054858647341251204

cube root : 6.0
8. floor() : java.lang.Math.floor() method returns the floor value of an argument i.e. the closest integer value which is either less or equal to the passed argument.
eg : 101.23 has floor value = 101
Important point : Same argument is resulted if if passed an NaN or infinite argument.

Syntax:
public static double floor(double arg)
Parameters:
arg - the argument whose floor value we need
Returns:closest possible value that is either less than
or equal to the argument passed

9. hypot() : java.lang.Math.hypot(double p, double b) method returns hypotenuse of a right triangle on passing the traingle’s base and perpendicular as arguments.
hypotenuse = [perpendicular2 + base2]1/2

Important Point :

• If either argument is infinite, then the result is positive infinity.
• If either argument is NaN and neither argument is infinite, then the result is NaN.
Syntax:
public static double hypot(double p, double b)
Parameters:
p - perpendicular of the right triangle
b - base of the right triangle
Returns:
hypotenuse of the right triangle

10. IEEEremainder() : java.lang.Math.IEEERemainder(double d1, double d2) method returns the remainder value by applying remainder operation on two arguments w.r.t IEEE 754 standard.
Remainder value = d1 – d2 * n
where,
n = closest exact value of d1/d2

Syntax:
public static double IEEEremainder(double d1,double d2)
Parameters:
d1 - dividend
d2 - divisor
Returns:
remainder when f1(dividend) is divided by(divisor)

11. log() : java.lang.Math.log() method returns the logarithmic value of the passed argument.
Syntax:
public static double log(double arg)
Parameters:
arg - argument passed.
Returns:
logarithmic value of the argument passed.

12. Java code explaining floor(), hypot(), IEEEremainder(), log() method in lang.Math class.

 // Java program explaining lang.MATH class methods // floor(), hypot(), IEEEremainder(), log()    import java.lang.*; public class NewClass {        public static void main(String[] args)     {         // Use of floor method         double f1 = 30.56, f2 = -56.34;         f1 =Math.floor(f1);         System.out.println("Floor value of f1 : "+f1);            f2 =Math.floor(f2);         System.out.println("Floor value of f2 : "+f2);         System.out.println("");            // Use of hypot() method         double p = 12, b = -5;         double h = Math.hypot(p, b);         System.out.println("Hypotenuse : "+h);         System.out.println("");            // Use of IEEEremainder() method         double d1 = 105, d2 = 2;         double r = Math.IEEEremainder(d1,d2);         System.out.println("Remainder : "+r);         System.out.println("");                    // Use of log() method         double l = 10;         l = Math.log(l);         System.out.println("Log value of 10 : "+l);                } }

Output :

Floor value of f1 : 30.0
Floor value of f2 : -57.0

Hypotenuse : 13.0

Remainder : 1.0

Log value of 10 : 2.302585092994046

13. ceil() : java.lang.Math.ceil(double a) method returns the smallest possible value which is either greater or equal to the argument passed. The returned value is a mathematical integer.
Special Case :

• Result is same, if the returned value is already a mathematical integer.
• Result is same, if the passed argument is NaN or infinte or zero.
• Result is negative zero, if the passed argument is less than zero but greater than -1.0

Syntax:

public static double ceil(double arg)
Parameters:
arg - the argument value
Returns:
smallest possible value(mathematical intger)
which is either greater or equal to the argument passed

14. atan() : java.lang.Math.atan() method returns returns the arc tangent of the method argument value. The returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2.
arc tan is inverse tan of the argument passed.
atan(arg) = tan inverse of arg
Special Case :

• Result is NaN, if the passed argument is NaN or its absolute value is > 1.
• Result is zero, if argument is zero.

Syntax:

public static double atan(double a)
Parameters:
a - the argument whose arc tangent value we need.
argument is taken as radian
Returns:
arc tan value of the argument.

15. copySign() : java.lang.Math.copySign() method returns first floating-point argument but having the sign of second argument.
Syntax:

public static double copySign(double m, double s)
or
public static float copySign(float m, float s)
Parameters:
m - magnitude
s - sign
Returns:
returns second argument with sign of first floating-point argument.

16. Java code explaining atan(), ceil(), copySign() method in lang.Math class.

 // Java program explaining lang.Math class methods // atan(), ceil(), copySign()    import java.math.*; public class NewClass {     public static void main(String[] args)     {         // Use of atan() method         double Atani = Math.atan(0);         System.out.println("atan value of Atani : "+Atani);         double x = Math.PI/2;            // Use of toRadian() method         x = Math.toRadians(x);         double Atanj = Math.atan(x);         System.out.println("atan value of Atanj : "+Atanj);         System.out.println("");               // Use of ceil() method         double val = 15.34 ,ceilval;         ceilval = Math.ceil(val);         System.out.println("ceil value of val : "+ceilval);         System.out.println("");            double dblMag = val;         double dblSign1 = 3;         double dblSign2 = -3;               // Use of copySign() method         double result1 = Math.copySign(dblMag,dblSign1);         System.out.println("copySign1 : "+result1);            double result2 = Math.copySign(dblMag,dblSign2);         System.out.println("copySign2 : "+result2);                } }

Output :

atan value of Atani : 0.0
atan value of Atanj : 0.0274087022410345

ceil value of val : 16.0

copySign1 : 15.34
copySign2 : -15.34

Next Article: Java.lang.math | Set 2
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