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Java Assignment Operator with Examples
  • Difficulty Level : Basic
  • Last Updated : 25 Nov, 2019

Operators constitute the basic building block to any programming language. Java too provides many types of operators which can be used according to the need to perform various calculation and functions be it logical, arithmetic, relational etc. They are classified based on the functionality they provide. Here are a few types:

  1. Arithmetic Operators
  2. Unary Operators
  3. Assignment Operator
  4. Relational Operators
  5. Logical Operators
  6. Ternary Operator
  7. Bitwise Operators
  8. Shift Operators

This article explains all that one needs to know regarding the Assignment Operators.

Assignment Operators

These operators are used to assign values to a variable. The left side operand of the assignment operator is a variable and the right side operand of the assignment operator is a value. The value on the right side must be of the same data-type of the operand on the left side otherwise the compiler will raise an error. This means that the assignment operators have right to left associativity, i.e value given on the right-hand side of the operator is assigned to the variable on the left and therefore right-hand side value must be declared before using it or should be a constant. The general format of assignment operator is,

variable operator value;

Let’s look at each of the assignment operators and how they operate:



  1. “=”: This is the simplest assignment operator which is used to assign the value on the right to the variable on the left. This is the basic definition of assignment operator and how does it functions.
    Syntax:
    num1 = num2;

    Example:

    a = 10;
    ch = 'y';




    // Java code to illustrate "="
      
    import java.io.*;
      
    class Assignment {
        public static void main(String[] args)
        {
      
            // Declaring variables
            int num;
            String name;
      
            // Assigning values
            num = 10;
            name = "GeeksforGeeks";
      
            // Displaying the assigned values
            System.out.println("num is assigned: " + num);
            System.out.println("name is assigned: " + name);
        }
    }
    Output:
    num is assigned: 10
    name is assigned: GeeksforGeeks
    

    Note: In many cases, the assignment operators can be combined with other operators to build a shorter version of the statement called Compound Statement. For example, instead of a = a+5, we can write a += 5. Let’s look at similar assignment operators that form the compound statements.

  2. “+=”: This operator is a compound of ‘+’ and ‘=’ operators. It operates by adding the current value of the variable on left to the value on the right and then assigning the result to the operand on the left.
    Syntax:
    num1 += num2;

    Example:

    a += 10
    
    This means,
    a = a + 10
    




    // Java code to illustrate "+="
      
    import java.io.*;
      
    class Assignment {
        public static void main(String[] args)
        {
      
            // Declaring variables
            int num1 = 10, num2 = 20;
      
            System.out.println("num1 = " + num1);
            System.out.println("num2 = " + num2);
      
            // Adding & Assigning values
            num1 += num2;
      
            // Displaying the assigned values
            System.out.println("num1 = " + num1);
        }
    }
    Output:
    num1 = 10
    num2 = 20
    num1 = 30
    
  3. “-=”: This operator is a compound of ‘-‘ and ‘=’ operators. It operates by subtracting the value of the variable on right from the current value of the variable on the left and then assigning the result to the operand on the left.
    Syntax:



    num1 -= num2;

    Example:

    a -= 10
    
    This means,
    a = a - 10
    




    // Java code to illustrate "-="
      
    import java.io.*;
      
    class Assignment {
        public static void main(String[] args)
        {
      
            // Declaring variables
            int num1 = 10, num2 = 20;
      
            System.out.println("num1 = " + num1);
            System.out.println("num2 = " + num2);
      
            // Subtracting & Assigning values
            num1 -= num2;
      
            // Displaying the assigned values
            System.out.println("num1 = " + num1);
        }
    }
    Output:
    num1 = 10
    num2 = 20
    num1 = -10
    
  4. “*=”: This operator is a compound of ‘*’ and ‘=’ operators. It operates by multiplying the current value of the variable on left to the value on the right and then assigning the result to the operand on the left.
    Syntax:
    num1 *= num2;

    Example:

    a *= 10
    This means,
    a = a * 10 
    




    // Java code to illustrate "*="
      
    import java.io.*;
      
    class Assignment {
        public static void main(String[] args)
        {
      
            // Declaring variables
            int num1 = 10, num2 = 20;
      
            System.out.println("num1 = " + num1);
            System.out.println("num2 = " + num2);
      
            // Multiplying & Assigning values
            num1 *= num2;
      
            // Displaying the assigned values
            System.out.println("num1 = " + num1);
        }
    }
    Output:
    num1 = 10
    num2 = 20
    num1 = 200
    
  5. “/=”: This operator is a compound of ‘/’ and ‘=’ operators. It operates by dividing the current value of the variable on left by the value on the right and then assigning the quotient to the operand on the left.
    Syntax:
    num1 /= num2;

    Example:

    a /= 10
    This means,
    a = a / 10
    




    // Java code to illustrate "/="
    import java.io.*;
      
    class Assignment {
        public static void main(String[] args)
        {
      
            // Declaring variables
            int num1 = 20, num2 = 10;
      
            System.out.println("num1 = " + num1);
            System.out.println("num2 = " + num2);
      
            // Dividing & Assigning values
            num1 /= num2;
      
            // Displaying the assigned values
            System.out.println("num1 = " + num1);
        }
    }
    Output:
    num1 = 20
    num2 = 10
    num1 = 2
    
  6. “%=”: This operator is a compound of ‘%’ and ‘=’ operators. It operates by dividing the current value of the variable on left by the value on the right and then assigning the remainder to the operand on the left.
    Syntax:
    num1 %= num2;

    Example:

    a %= 3
    
    This means,
    a = a % 3
    




    // Java code to illustrate "%="
    import java.io.*;
      
    class Assignment {
        public static void main(String[] args)
        {
      
            // Declaring variables
            int num1 = 5, num2 = 3;
      
            System.out.println("num1 = " + num1);
            System.out.println("num2 = " + num2);
      
            // Moduling & Assigning values
            num1 %= num2;
      
            // Displaying the assigned values
            System.out.println("num1 = " + num1);
        }
    }
    Output:
    num1 = 5
    num2 = 3
    num1 = 2
    

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