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Java Arithmetic Operators with Examples
• Last Updated : 25 Nov, 2019

Operators constitute the basic building block to any programming language. Java too provides many types of operators which can be used according to the need to perform various calculation and functions be it logical, arithmetic, relational etc. They are classified based on the functionality they provide. Here are a few types:

1. Arithmetic Operators
2. Unary Operators
3. Assignment Operator
4. Relational Operators
5. Logical Operators
6. Ternary Operator
7. Bitwise Operators
8. Shift Operators

This article explains all that one needs to know regarding the Arithmetic Operators.

Arithmetic Operators

These operators involve the mathematical operators that can be used to perform various simple or advance arithmetic operations on the primitive data types referred to as the operands. These operators consist of various unary and binary operators that can be applied on a single or two operands respectively. Let’s look at the various operators that Java has to provide under the arithmetic operators. Now let’s look at each one of the arithmetic operators in Java:

1. Addition(+): This operator is a binary operator and is used to add two operands.

Syntax:

`num1 + num2`

Example:

```num1 = 10, num2 = 20
sum = num1 + num2 = 30```
 `// Java code to illustrate Addition operator`` ` `import` `java.io.*;`` ` `class` `Addition {``    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``// initializing variables``        ``int` `num1 = ``10``, num2 = ``20``, sum = ``0``;`` ` `        ``// Displaying num1 and num2``        ``System.out.println(``"num1 = "` `+ num1);``        ``System.out.println(``"num2 = "` `+ num2);`` ` `        ``// adding num1 and num2``        ``sum = num1 + num2;``        ``System.out.println(``"The sum = "` `+ sum);``    ``}``}`
Output:
```num1 = 10
num2 = 20
The sum = 30
```
2. Subtraction(-): This operator is a binary operator and is used to subtract two operands.
Syntax:
`num1 - num2`

Example:

```num1 = 20, num2 = 10
sub = num1 - num2 = 10```
 `// Java code to illustrate Subtraction operator`` ` `import` `java.io.*;`` ` `class` `Subtraction {``    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``// initializing variables``        ``int` `num1 = ``20``, num2 = ``10``, sub = ``0``;`` ` `        ``// Displaying num1 and num2``        ``System.out.println(``"num1 = "` `+ num1);``        ``System.out.println(``"num2 = "` `+ num2);`` ` `        ``// subtracting num1 and num2``        ``sub = num1 - num2;``        ``System.out.println(``"Subtraction = "` `+ sub);``    ``}``}`
Output:
```num1 = 20
num2 = 10
Subtraction = 10
```
3. Multiplication(*): This operator is a binary operator and is used to multiply two operands.
Syntax:
`num1 * num2`

Example:

```num1 = 20, num2 = 10
mult = num1 * num2 = 200```
 `// Java code to illustrate Multiplication operator`` ` `import` `java.io.*;`` ` `class` `Multiplication {``    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``// initializing variables``        ``int` `num1 = ``20``, num2 = ``10``, mult = ``0``;`` ` `        ``// Displaying num1 and num2``        ``System.out.println(``"num1 = "` `+ num1);``        ``System.out.println(``"num2 = "` `+ num2);`` ` `        ``// Multiplying num1 and num2``        ``mult = num1 * num2;``        ``System.out.println(``"Multiplication = "` `+ mult);``    ``}``}`
Output:
```num1 = 20
num2 = 10
Multiplication = 200
```
4. Division(/): This is a binary operator that is used to divide the first operand(dividend) by the second operand(divisor) and give the quotient as result.
Syntax:
`num1 / num2`

Example:

```num1 = 20, num2 = 10
div = num1 / num2 = 2```
 `// Java code to illustrate Division operator`` ` `import` `java.io.*;`` ` `class` `Division {``    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``// initializing variables``        ``int` `num1 = ``20``, num2 = ``10``, div = ``0``;`` ` `        ``// Displaying num1 and num2``        ``System.out.println(``"num1 = "` `+ num1);``        ``System.out.println(``"num2 = "` `+ num2);`` ` `        ``// Dividing num1 and num2``        ``div = num1 / num2;``        ``System.out.println(``"Division = "` `+ div);``    ``}``}`
Output:
```num1 = 20
num2 = 10
Division = 2
```
5. Modulus(%): This is a binary operator that is used to return the remainder when the first operand(dividend) is divided by the second operand(divisor).
Syntax:
`num1 % num2`

Example:

```num1 = 5, num2 = 2
mod = num1 % num2 = 1```
 `// Java code to illustrate Modulus operator`` ` `import` `java.io.*;`` ` `class` `Modulus {``    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``// initializing variables``        ``int` `num1 = ``5``, num2 = ``2``, mod = ``0``;`` ` `        ``// Displaying num1 and num2``        ``System.out.println(``"num1 = "` `+ num1);``        ``System.out.println(``"num2 = "` `+ num2);`` ` `        ``// Remaindering num1 and num2``        ``mod = num1 % num2;``        ``System.out.println(``"Remainder = "` `+ mod);``    ``}``}`
Output:
```num1 = 5
num2 = 2
Remainder = 1
```
6. Increment(++): This is a unary operator that acts on one operand, unlike the previous operations. It is used to increment the value of an integer. It can be used in two ways:
1. Post-increment operator: When placed after the variable name, the value of the operand is incremented but the previous value is retained temporarily until the execution of this statement and it gets updated before the execution of the next statement.
Syntax:
`num++`

Example:

```num = 5
num++ = 6```
2. Pre-increment operator: When placed before the variable name, the operand’s value is incremented instantly.
Syntax:
`++num`

Example:

```num = 5
++num = 6```
 `// Java code to illustrate increment operator`` ` `import` `java.io.*;`` ` `class` `Increment {``    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``// initializing variables``        ``int` `num = ``5``;`` ` `        ``// first 5 gets printed and then``        ``// increment to 6``        ``System.out.println(``"Post "``                           ``+ ``"increment = "` `+ num++);`` ` `        ``// num was 6, incremented to 7``        ``// then printed``        ``System.out.println(``"Pre "``                           ``+ ``"increment = "` `+ ++num);``    ``}``}`
Output:
```Post increment = 5
Pre increment = 7
```
7. Decrement(–): This is also a unary operator that acts on one operand. It is used to decrement the value of an integer. It can be used in two ways:
1. Post-decrement operator: When placed after the variable name, the value of the operand is decremented but the previous values is retained temporarily until the execution of this statement and it gets updated before the execution of the next statement.
Syntax:
`num--`

Example:

```num = 5
num-- = 4```
2. Pre-decrement operator: When placed before the variable name, the operand’s value is decremented instantly.
Syntax:
`--num`

Example:

```num = 5
--num = 4```
 `// Java code to illustrate decrement operator`` ` `import` `java.io.*;`` ` `class` `Decrement {``    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``// initializing variables``        ``int` `num = ``5``;`` ` `        ``// first 5 gets printed and then``        ``// decremented to 4``        ``System.out.println(``"Post "``                           ``+ ``"decrement = "` `+ num--);`` ` `        ``System.out.println(``"num = "` `+ num);`` ` `        ``// num was 4, decremented to 3``        ``// then printed``        ``System.out.println(``"Pre "``                           ``+ ``"decrement = "` `+ --num);``    ``}``}`
Output:
```Post decrement = 5
num = 4
Pre decrement = 3
```

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