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# Iterators in C++ STL

Prerequisite : Introduction to Iterators
Iterators are used to point at the memory addresses of STL containers. They are primarily used in sequences of numbers, characters etc. They reduce the complexity and execution time of the program.

Operations of iterators :-

1. begin() :- This function is used to return the beginning position of the container.

2. end() :- This function is used to return the after end position of the container.

 `// C++ code to demonstrate the working of``// iterator, begin() and end()``#include``#include // for iterators``#include // for vectors``using` `namespace` `std;``int` `main()``{``    ``vector<``int``> ar = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };``     ` `    ``// Declaring iterator to a vector``    ``vector<``int``>::iterator ptr;``     ` `    ``// Displaying vector elements using begin() and end()``    ``cout << ``"The vector elements are : "``;``    ``for` `(ptr = ar.begin(); ptr < ar.end(); ptr++)``        ``cout << *ptr << ``" "``;``     ` `    ``return` `0;    ``}`

Output:

```The vector elements are : 1 2 3 4 5
```

3. advance() :- This function is used to increment the iterator position till the specified number mentioned in its arguments.

 `// C++ code to demonstrate the working of``// advance()``#include``#include // for iterators``#include // for vectors``using` `namespace` `std;``int` `main()``{``    ``vector<``int``> ar = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };``     ` `    ``// Declaring iterator to a vector``    ``vector<``int``>::iterator ptr = ar.begin();``     ` `    ``// Using advance() to increment iterator position``    ``// points to 4``    ``advance(ptr, 3);``     ` `    ``// Displaying iterator position``    ``cout << ``"The position of iterator after advancing is : "``;``    ``cout << *ptr << ``" "``;``     ` `    ``return` `0;``     ` `}`

Output:

```The position of iterator after advancing is : 4
```

4. next() :- This function returns the new iterator that the iterator would point after advancing the positions mentioned in its arguments.

5. prev() :- This function returns the new iterator that the iterator would point after decrementing the positions mentioned in its arguments.

 `// C++ code to demonstrate the working of``// next() and prev() ``#include``#include // for iterators``#include // for vectors``using` `namespace` `std;``int` `main()``{``    ``vector<``int``> ar = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };``     ` `    ``// Declaring iterators to a vector``    ``vector<``int``>::iterator ptr = ar.begin();``    ``vector<``int``>::iterator ftr = ar.end();``    ` `    ` `    ``// Using next() to return new iterator``    ``// points to 4``    ``auto` `it = next(ptr, 3);``     ` `    ``// Using prev() to return new iterator``    ``// points to 3``    ``auto` `it1 = prev(ftr, 3);``     ` `    ``// Displaying iterator position``    ``cout << ``"The position of new iterator using next() is : "``;``    ``cout << *it << ``" "``;``    ``cout << endl;``     ` `    ``// Displaying iterator position``    ``cout << ``"The position of new iterator using prev()  is : "``;``    ``cout << *it1 << ``" "``;``    ``cout << endl;``     ` `    ``return` `0; ``}`

Output:

```The position of new iterator using next() is : 4
The position of new iterator using prev()  is : 3
```

6. inserter()
:- This function is used to insert the elements at any position in the container. It accepts 2 arguments, the container and iterator to position where the elements have to be inserted.

 `// C++ code to demonstrate the working of``// inserter()``#include``#include // for iterators``#include // for vectors``using` `namespace` `std;``int` `main()``{``    ``vector<``int``> ar = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };``    ``vector<``int``> ar1 = {10, 20, 30}; ``     ` `    ``// Declaring iterator to a vector``    ``vector<``int``>::iterator ptr = ar.begin();``    ` `    ``// Using advance to set position``    ``advance(ptr, 3);``     ` `    ``// copying 1 vector elements in other using inserter()``    ``// inserts ar1 after 3rd position in ar``    ``copy(ar1.begin(), ar1.end(), inserter(ar,ptr));``     ` `    ``// Displaying new vector elements``    ``cout << ``"The new vector after inserting elements is : "``;``    ``for` `(``int` `&x : ar) ``        ``cout << x << ``" "``;``     ` `    ``return` `0;    ``}`

Output:

```The new vector after inserting elements is : 1 2 3 10 20 30 4 5
```

Types of Iterators :

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