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Ionic or Electrovalent Bond

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  • Last Updated : 10 Nov, 2021
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Chemical bonding is defined as the attractive forces that hold various chemical constituents (atoms, ions, and so on) together in various chemical species. A bond is formed in order to achieve stability through the release of energy.

Kossel-Lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding: Atoms participate in bond formation to complete their octet or to acquire the electronic configuration of the nearest inert gas atoms, according to this theory (Octet rule). This is accomplished by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons.

What is an Ionic Bond?

A chemical bond is formed between two atoms by the complete transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to the other, causing the atoms to assume their closest inert gas configuration. There are primarily three ways for two atoms to combine in order to lose energy and become stable. One method is to donate or accept electrons in order to complete their octet configuration. This type of bond is referred to as an ionic bond or an electrovalent bond. When one atom gains electrons while the other atom loses electrons from its outermost level or orbit, this type of bond is formed.

The electrostatic force of attraction that holds two oppositely charged ions together is known as an ionic bond.

Ionic bonding produces ionic compounds, which are best exemplified by compounds formed between nonmetals and alkali and alkaline-earth metals. The electrostatic forces of attraction between opposite charges and repulsion between similar charges orient the ions in such a way that every positive ion is surrounded by negative ions and vice versa in ionic crystalline solids of this type. 

In short, the ions are arranged in such a way that the positive and negative charges alternate and balance one another, resulting in a total charge of zero for the entire substance. The electrostatic forces in ionic crystals are quite powerful. As a result, these substances are typically hard and non-volatile.

Electrovalent Bond

Electrovalent bonds are formed when electrons are transferred from one element’s atoms to another element’s atoms, resulting in positive and negative ions. The bond formed by the transfer of electrons between atoms is known as an electrovalent bond or an ionic bond. Only between metals and nonmetals do electrovalent bonds form. Between two non-metals, no electrovalent bonds are formed.

Factors responsible for the formation of ionic bonds:

  • Metals should have the lowest ionization enthalpy possible.
  • The highest electron gain enthalpy must be found in a nonmetal.
  • The energy released during the formation of one mole of the crystal lattice, i.e. the lattice enthalpy, must be large.

Electronegativity and Ionic Bonding

  • An ionic bond is a stable bond formed by the complete transfer of valence electrons.
  • This type of bonding results in the formation of two oppositely charged ions – positive ions are referred to as cations, and negative ions are referred to as anions.
  • When two oppositely charged ions are present, they have a strong attractive force between them. This force is referred to as an ionic or electrovalent bond.
  • Ionic bonds form between atoms with large electronegativity differences, whereas covalent bonds form between atoms with smaller electronegativity differences.
  • An ionic compound is a compound formed by the electrostatic attraction of positive and negative ions.

Properties of Ionic Bond 

  1. Ionic bonds are the most powerful of all bonds.
  2. As ionic bonds have charge separation, they are the most reactive of all the bonds in the appropriate medium.
  3. The melting and boiling points of ionic bonded molecules are extremely high.
  4. Ionic bonded molecules in aqueous solutions or molten states are good conductors of electricity because of the presence of ions, which act as charge carriers.
  5. In nature, ionic compounds are usually solids.
  6. Crystal structure exists in ionic compounds.

What is a Covalent Bond?

The interatomic bond that arises from the sharing of an electron pair between two atoms is known as a covalent bond in chemistry. The electrical attraction of their nuclei for the identical electrons causes the binding. When the total energy of the bound atoms is lower than that of widely spaced atoms, a covalent bond is formed.

The inorganic elements hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, water, and ammonia (H2, N2, Cl2, H2O, NH3), as well as all organic molecules, contain covalent connections. Covalent bonds are represented as solid lines linking pairs of atoms in structural representations of molecules.

Carbon compounds with a carbon-carbon link are known as covalent carbon compounds. The bonds between these covalent molecules are stronger than those between other chemicals. This is due to the fact that carbon is a tiny atom. Its nucleus has a high attraction force that binds these bonds very securely. As a result, covalent carbon molecules have a strong link with one another.

Difference between Ionic Bond and Covalent Bond 

The distinctions between them are as follows:

Ionic Bond

Covalent Bond

Ionic bonds are formed by the attraction of positive and negative ions in a crystal, and compounds held together by ionic bonds are known as ionic compounds.When two atoms share one or more electron pairs, they form a covalent bond. Each atom contributes an equal number of electrons to the formation of the bond.
More ionic compounds are formed when the ionization potential difference between the two atoms is greater.As atoms with higher ionization potential cannot lose their valence electrons, they prefer to form covalent bonds by sharing electrons.
The formation of an ionic bond is caused by atoms with a greater electronegativity difference. For instance, KCl.If the electronegativities of the combining atoms are not significantly different, the bond formed between them is most likely covalent. For instance, HCl.

Sample Questions

Question 1: Ionic bonds contain what kind of force?


Ionic bonding is a type of chemical connection in which one atom loses and gains valence electrons from another. This exchange results in a more stable noble gas electrical state for both atoms involved. An ionic bond is formed by the attractive electrostatic interactions of two oppositely charged ions.

Question 2: How can ionic bonds be broken?


As ionic chemicals are polar, they dissolve in polar solvents such as water. Polar solvents dissolve when the ionic bonds are broken. Ionic bonds can be broken by dissolving the ionic substance in water.

Question 3: Define a chemical bond.


Chemical bonds are defined as the attractive force that is responsible for holding or holding the various constituents of atoms such as electrons, protons, neutrons, or any other ions together in various chemical species.

Question 4: Give the main feature of Lewis’ approach to chemical bonding.


Lewis proposed that when atoms are linked together using chemical bonds, they form a stable octet. He also discovered that atoms have a positively charged centre called the nucleus and that the atom’s outer shell can hold up to eight electrons. These electrons are found at the cube’s four corners and revolve around the centre. Lewis also devised Lewis symbols, which are simple notations for representing valence electrons in an atom.

Question 5: What is the octet rule?


The octet rule tells us about atoms that tend to arrange their electrons in such a way that they have eight electrons in their outermost shell. Except for hydrogen and helium, which require only two electrons to complete their octet.

Question 6: What is bond order?


The number of bonds between two atoms in a molecule is referred to as bond order. The difference between the bonding and antibonding number of electrons can be used to calculate it.

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