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Introduction to Java Swing

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Swing is a Java Foundation Classes [JFC] library and an extension of the Abstract Window Toolkit [AWT]. Swing offers much-improved functionality over AWT, new components, expanded components features, and excellent event handling with drag-and-drop support.

Introduction of Java Swing

Swing has about four times the number of User Interface [UI] components as AWT and is part of the standard Java distribution. By today’s application GUI requirements, AWT is a limited implementation, not quite capable of providing the components required for developing complex GUI’s required in modern commercial applications. The AWT component set has quite a few bugs and really does take up a lot of system resources when compared to equivalent Swing resources. Netscape introduced its Internet Foundation Classes [IFC] library for use with Java. Its Classes became very popular with programmers creating GUI’s for commercial applications.

  • Swing is a Set Of API ( API- Set Of Classes and Interfaces )
  • Swing is Provided to Design Graphical User Interfaces
  • Swing is an Extension library to the AWT (Abstract Window Toolkit)
  • Includes New and improved Components that have been enhancing the looks and Functionality of GUIs’
  • Swing can be used to build(Develop) The Standalone swing GUI Apps Also as Servlets And Applets
  • It Employs model/view design architecture
  • Swing is more portable and more flexible than AWT, The Swing is built on top of the AWT
  • Swing is Entirely written in Java
  • Java Swing Components are Platform-independent And The Swing Components are lightweight
  • Swing Supports a Pluggable look and feels And Swing provides more powerful components
  • such as tables, lists, Scrollpanes, Colourchooser, tabbedpane, etc
  • Further Swing Follows MVC.

Many programmers think that JFC and Swing are one and the same thing, but that is not so.

JFC contains Swing [A UI component package] and quite a number of other items:

  • Cut and paste: Clipboard support
  • Accessibility features: Aimed at developing GUI’s for users with disabilities
  • The Desktop Colors Features Has been Firstly introduced in Java 1.1
  • Java 2D: it has Improved colors, images, and also texts support

Features Of Swing Class  

  • Pluggable look and feel
  • Uses MVC architecture
  • Lightweight Components
  • Platform Independent
  • Advanced features such as JTable, JTabbedPane, JScollPane, etc.
  • Java is a platform-independent language and runs on any client machine, the GUI look and feel, owned and delivered by a platform-specific O/S, simply does not affect an application’s GUI constructed using Swing components
  • Lightweight Components: Starting with the JDK 1.1, its AWT-supported lightweight component development. For a component to qualify as lightweight, it must not depend on any non-Java [O/s based) system classes. Swing components have their own view supported by Java’s look and feel classes.
  • Pluggable Look and Feel: This feature enables the user to switch the look and feel of Swing components without restarting an application. The Swing library supports components’ look and feels that remain the same across all platforms wherever the program runs. The Swing library provides an API that gives real flexibility in determining the look and feel of the GUI of an application
  • Highly customizable – Swing controls can be customized in a very easy way as visual appearance is independent of internal representation.
  • Rich controls– Swing provides a rich set of advanced controls like Tree TabbedPane, slider, colorpicker, and table controls.

Swing Classes Hierarchy

The MVC Connection

  • In general, a visual component is a composite of three distinct aspects: 
    1. The way that the component looks when rendered on the screen
    2. The way such that the component reacts to the user
    3. The state information associated With the component
  • Over the years, one component architecture has proven itself to be exceptionally effective:- Model-View-Controller or MVC for short.
  • In MVC terminology, the model corresponds to the state information associated with the Component
  • The view determines how the component is displayed on the screen, including any aspects of the view that are affected by the current state of the model.
  • The controller determines how the component reacts to the user

The simplest Swing components have capabilities far beyond AWT components as follows: 

  • Swing buttons and labels can be displaying images instead of or in addition to text
  • The borders around most Swing components can be changed easily. For example, it is easy to put a 1 pixel border around the outside of a Swing label
  • Swing components do not have to be rectangular. Buttons, for example, can be round
  • Now The Latest Assertive technologies such as screen readers can easily get information from Swing components. For example: A screen reader tool can easily capture the text that is displayed on a Swing button or label

Example 1: Develop a program using label (swing)  to display message “GFG WEB Site  Click”;


import javax.swing.*;
// Main class
class GFG {
    // Main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
        JFrame frame
            = new JFrame(); // creating instance of JFrame
        JButton button = new JButton(
            " GFG WebSite Click"); // creating instance of
                                   // JButton
            150, 200, 220,
            50); // x axis, y axis, width, height
        frame.add(button); // adding button in JFrame
        frame.setSize(500, 600); // 400 width and 500 height
        frame.setLayout(null); // using no layout managers
        frame.setVisible(true); // making the frame visible



Example 2: Write a program to create three buttons with caption OK , SUBMIT, CANCLE.


import java.awt.*;
class button  {
    button() {
        Frame f = new Frame();
        Button b1 = new Button("OK");
        b1.setBounds(100, 50, 50, 50);
        Button b2 = new Button("SUBMIT");
        b2.setBounds(100, 101, 50, 50);
        Button b3 = new Button("CANCLE");
        b3.setBounds(100, 150, 80, 50);
        f.setSize(500, 500);
    public static void main(String a[]) {
        new button();



Example 3 : 


import java.awt.*;
class Lan {
    Lan() {
        Frame f = new Frame();
        Label l1 = new Label("Select known Languages");
        l1.setBounds(100, 50, 120, 80);
        Checkbox c2 = new Checkbox("Hindi");
        c2.setBounds(100, 150, 50, 50);
        Checkbox c3 = new Checkbox("English");
        c3.setBounds(100, 200, 80, 50);
        Checkbox c4 = new Checkbox("marathi");
        c4.setBounds(100, 250, 80, 50);
        f.setSize(500, 500);
    public static void main(String ar[]) {
        new Lan();



Components of Swing Classthe task’s percentage

ComponentA Component is the Abstract base class for about the non menu user-interface controls of SWING. Components are represents an object with a graphical representation
ContainerA Container is a component that can container SWING Components
JComponentA JComponent is a base class for all swing UI Components In order to use a swing component that inherits from JComponent, component must be in a containment hierarchy whose root is a top-level Swing container
JLabelA JLabel is an object component for placing text in a container
JButtonThis class creates a labeled button
JColorChooserA JColorChooser provides a pane of controls designed to allow the user to manipulate and select a color
JCheckBoxA JCheckBox is a graphical(GUI) component that can be in either an on-(true) or off-(false) state
JRadioButtonThe JRadioButton class is a graphical(GUI) component that can be in either an on-(true) or off-(false) state. in the group
JListA JList component represents the user with the scrolling list of text items
JComboBoxA JComboBox component is Presents the User with a show up Menu of choices
JTextFieldA JTextField object is a text component that will allow for the editing of a single line of text 
JPasswordField                  A JPasswordField object it is a text component specialized for password entry
JTextAreaA JTextArea object is a text component that allows for the editing of multiple lines of text
ImagelconA ImageIcon control is an implementation of the Icon interface that paints Icons from Images
JScrollbarA JScrollbar control represents a scroll bar component in order to enable users to Select from range values
JOptionPane    JOptionPane provides set of standard dialog boxes that prompt users for a value or Something
JFileChooser  A JFileChooser it Controls represents a dialog window from which the user can select a file.
JProgressBar               As the task progresses towards completion, the progress bar displays the tasks percentage on its completion
JSlider A JSlider this class is lets the user graphically(GUI) select by using a value by sliding a knob within a bounded interval.
JSpinner A JSpinner this class is a single line input where the field that lets the user select by using a number or an object value from an ordered sequence

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Last Updated : 29 Mar, 2023
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