Android is an open source operating system, based on Linux kernel and used in mobile devices like smartphones, tablets etc. Further, it was developed for smart watches and Android TV. Each of them has a specialized interface.
Android was developed by the company Open Handset Alliance (OHA), led by Google. The Open Handset Alliance (OHA) is consortium of multiple companies like Samsung, Sony, Intel and many more to provide a services and deploy handsets using android platform.
Because it is Android Open Source Project(AOSP) licensed under the Apache license, many developers has been contributed in android development. The primary goal of the android project is to create product that can be implemented in user’s life.
Initially, Android development was started by Android Inc., later bought by Google in year 2005. It’s first commercial version was released in September 2008. Since then, different number of versions have been released with extraordinary features.
Android first beta version of the Android Software Development Kit (SDK) released in 2007 and the first commercial version of Android 1.0 (Alpha), was released in September 2008.
In 2018, Google announced another Latest Version, 9.0 Pie. In this version Google completely revamped the official support for screen cutouts (“notches”), including APIs and system behaviors depending on their size and position.
The source code for Android is available free on different sites like Git-Hub, Stack overflow etc. Google publishes most of the code under the Apache License version 2.0.
Features of Android
Android is a powerful open source operating system which provides immense features and some of these are listed below.
- Android Open Source Project so we can customize the OS based on our requirements.
- Android supports different types of connectivity for GSM, CDMA, Wifi, Bluetooth etc. for telephonic conversation or data transfer.
- Using wifi technology we can pair with other devices while playing games or using other application.
- It contains multiple APIs to support a location-tracking services such as GPS.
- We can manage all data storage related activities by using file manager.
- It contains a wide range of media supports like AVI, MKV, FLV, MPEG4 etc. to play or record variety of audio / video.
- It also support different image formats like JPEG, PNG, GIF, BMP, MP3, etc.
- It supports multimedia hardware control to perform playback or recording using camera and microphone.
- Android has an integrated open source webkit layout based web browser to support User Interface like HTML5, CSS3.
- Android supports a multi-tasking means we can run multiple application at a time and can switch in between them.
- It provide support for virtual reality or 2D/3D Graphics
Google launched the first version of Android platform on Nov 5, 2007. Since then, Google released a lot of android versions such as Apple Pie, Banana Bread, Cupcake, Donut, Éclair, Froyo, Gingerbread, Jellybeans, Kitkat, Lollipop, marshmallow, Naughat, Oreo etc. with extra functionalities and new features.
Following table shows the version details of android which is released by Google from 2007 to till date.
|Code Name||Version||API level||Release date|
|Apple Pie||Android 1.0||1||September 23, 2008|
|Banana Bread||Android 1.1||2||February 9, 2009|
|Cupcake||Android 1.5||3||April 30, 2009|
|Donut||Android 1.6||4||September 15, 2009|
|Eclair||Android 2.0 – 2.1||5-7||October 26, 2009|
|Froyo||Android 2.2 – 2.2.3||8||May 20, 2010|
|Gingerbread||Android 2.3 – 2.3.4||9-10||December 6, 2010|
|Honeycomb||Android 3.0.x – 3.2.x||11 – 13||February 22, 2011|
|Ice Cream Sandwich||Android 4.0 – 4.0.4||14 – 15||October 18, 2011|
|Jelly Bean||Android 4.1 – 4.1.2||16 – 18||July 9, 2012|
|Kitkat||Android 4.4 – 4.4.4||19||July 9, 2012|
|Lollipop||Android 5.0 – 5.1||21 – 22||October 17, 2014|
|Marshmallow||Android 6.0 – 6.0.1||23||October 5, 2015|
|Nougat||Android 7.0 – 7.1||24 – 25||August 22, 2016|
|Oreo||Android 8.0||26||August 21, 2017|
|Pie||Android 9.0||27||August 6, 2018|
- Introduction to Kotlin
- How to create project in Android Studio using Kotlin
- Android Architecture
- Android EditText in Kotlin
- Android Project folder Structure
- How to install Android Virtual Device(AVD)
- Android LinearLayout in Kotlin
- Android RelativeLayout in Kotlin
- Android ListView in Kotlin
- Android FrameLayout in Kotlin
- Android TableLayout in Kotlin
- Android Menus
- Android UI Layouts
- Android Toast in Kotlin
- Android Fade In/Out in Kotlin
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