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Introduction of Quantum Computers

  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 02 Mar, 2021

When we look inside today’s classical computers, we see a string of 0s and 1s being manipulated to produce calculations and results. Be it streaming of videos, playing a music app, or a display of a letter. Our computer works on binary bits.

But when it comes to quantum computers, we see that these computers perform calculations differently than what a traditional computer would do. Quantum computers use isolated subatomic particles like electrons, photons that are generated from semiconducting materials. These semiconducting materials are cooled down to very low temperatures because temperature difference or disturbances can lead to errors.

If we add bits, the crunching power of a traditional computer increases. Likewise, we can think of quantum computers. When we make use of an electron and go by the actual definition of quantum mechanics which says that particles can exist in two states so, a qbit can represent two states (0 and 1) by the definition of quantum mechanics. This is called superposition. If we apply an external microwave pulse, we can flip the states of that quantum bit and since that quantum bit manifests itself in two states, we can perform operations simultaneously on both states.

When two electrons will entangle with each other than the same operations can be performed on those two electrons that have 4 different states of 0s and 1s. This increases the speed and processing manifolds. Hence, number crunching can increase exponentially by this mystic phenomenon of entanglement!

Use of Quantum Computers :
Due to its high speed and brilliant processing power, quantum computers would find their use not in mainstream computing. A lot of chemistry and nanotechnology depends upon quantum systems. Hence, quantum computers can be used for the simulation of quantum systems.



There can be a great improvement on algorithms that are made for machine learning.

Quantum supremacy in which a computer can perform tasks that are beyond the power of traditional computers. Many companies like Google and IBM are working on achieving the quantum supremacy. IBM has its own 53 bit quantum computer but at its still not clear that at what bit count will supremacy be achieved.

Inside the Quantum Computers :

  • Qbit Amplifier –
    In the amplifying stage, the temperatures are brought down so that there is no disturbance or hindrances to the bits.
     
  • Microwave Lines –
    Microwave pulses are used to entangle two particles or flip the states of the quantum nits.
     
  • Superconducting co-axial lines –
    Superconducting lines minimize the energy loss during the amplifying stages.
     
  • Cryoperm Shield –
    The heart of the quantum computer, the processor sits in this shield so as to preserve its quality.
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