Internetworking Terms and Concepts
The term Internetworking means interconnection i.e. interconnecting two or more computers. Inter means between and networking means the exchange of information or data among multiple connected devices. Internetworking means connecting two or more computer networks using devices like routers, gateways, modem, RJ-45 connector, bridge, etc. It provides a universal communication service. There are many types of physical networks like Ethernet, FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface), ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode).
Some terms and concepts of internetworking are given below:
1. WWW (World Wide Web) :
- Invented by Sir Tim Berners-Lee in 1989
- Collection of web pages or web sites found on network of computers
- Allow users to access web pages or documents on the net using URL (Uniform Resource Locators)
- Allow people to share their work and documents through social networking sites, blogs, etc.
- Web pages are formatted in HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
- HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) allows web pages, documents to be requested and transmitted over the Internet
- Web servers are computers where web pages are stored and accessed by user’s HTTP via internet
- Faster communication, social networking, etc.
2. Telnet :
- Developed in 1969
- Stands for teletype network
- The protocol used to establish a virtual connection for text-based communication between two machines
- Follows TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) / IP (Internet Protocol) for accessing remote computers
- Protocol for remote login
- Overlapped by SSH (Security Shell) because of security issues
- Uses for modification, control over server, running various programs, supports user authentication, etc.
3. Web Browser and Web Server :
- Web Browser:
- Allows the user to access information or web pages on WWW (World Wide Web)
- Commonly referred to as a Browser
- Converts or translate the content of web pages and websites into human-readable content
- Used in devices like laptops, smartphones, computers, etc.
- Examples: Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google chrome
- Supports secure HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), a combination of HTML (HyperText Markup Language) AND XHTML (Extensible HyperText Markup Language), FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
- Web Server:
- A computer that runs websites
- Uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) for intercommunication
- Allows users to have access to web pages contain HTML (HyperText Markup Language) documents, includes images style sheets, etc.
- Supports server-side scripting using ASP (Active Server Pages), PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor), or other scripting languages
4. Web Site, Web Pages and Web Addresses :
- Web Site:
- Collection of interlinked web pages identified by the common domain name
- Examples: google.com, flipkart.com, facebook.com, etc.
- Created and maintained by the organization, individual, group, etc.
- It can be accessed on devices like smartphones, laptops, tablets, etc.
- Also known as web presence
- Stored and hosted on web servers
- Web page:
- Set of data or information provided by a website in a web browser identified by URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
- Information or documents are written in HTML (HyperText Markup Language) or XHTML (Extensible HyperText Markup Language)
- Displayed using a web browser on devices like mobile, computer, etc.
- Easy to create and maintain
- Web Address:
- Developed by Tim Berners-Lee in 1994 and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
- Referred to as URL (Uniform or Universal Resource Locator) or domain name
- Address of a website or document or other resources on the WWW (World Wide Web)
- Sample URL: http://www.google.com
- Uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) Protocol
- Makes accessing to a website very easy for users
5. Web Hosting :
- Type of Internet Hosting Service
- Allows individuals and organizations to develop a web site or web page and host/post on a web server
- Wed host provides space to their users, store web pages of their websites and post them on web servers connected to the Internet
- Some types of web hosting services: Free hosting, Virtual or Shared Hosting, dedicated hosting, Co-location hosting, cloud hosting, clustered hosting, etc.
- Some Web Hosting software: Apache, Windows Server, etc.
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