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Insert Node at the End of a Linked List

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  • Difficulty Level : Basic
  • Last Updated : 13 Mar, 2023
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Like arrays, Linked List is a linear data structure. Unlike arrays, linked list elements are not stored at a contiguous location; the elements are linked using pointers. They include a series of connected nodes. Here, each node stores the data and the address of the next node.

To learn more about linked list refer to the article “Introduction to Linked LIst“.

Given a linked list, the task is to insert a new node at the end of the linked list.

Insert a node at the end of a linked list

Insert a node at the end of a linked list

Example:

List = 1->2->3->4, Insert a node with value 5 at the end.
Output list will be: 1->2->3->4->5

Consider the following representations of the linked list. 

C++




// A linked list node
class Node {
public:
    int data;
    Node* next;
};

C




// A linked list node
struct Node {
    int data;
    struct Node* next;
};

Java




// Linked List Class
class LinkedList {
    Node head; // head of list
 
    /* Node Class */
    class Node {
        int data;
        Node next;
 
        // Constructor to create a new node
        Node(int d)
        {
            data = d;
            next = null;
        }
    }
}

Python3




# Node class
class Node:
 
    # Function to initialize the node object
    def __init__(self, data):
        self.data = data  # Assign data
        self.next = None  # Initialize next as null
 
# Linked List class
 
 
class LinkedList:
 
    # Function to initialize the Linked List object
    def __init__(self):
        self.head = None

C#




/* Linked list Node*/
public class Node {
    public int data;
    public Node next;
    public Node(int d)
    {
        data = d;
        next = null;
    }
}

Javascript




<script>
// Linked List Class
    var head; // head of list
 
    /* Node Class */
    class Node {
 
        // Constructor to create a new node
        constructor(d) {
            this.data = d;
            this.next = null;
        }
    }
// This code is contributed by todaysgaurav
</script>

Approach: Following is the approach to add a new node at the end of the linked list:

  • Allocate memory for a new node (say temp) and create a pointer (say last) which points the head of the linked list.
  • Set the data to be entered in temp.
  • temp will be the last node. Hence the next pointer of temp will point to null.
  • If linked list is empty make temp as the head.
  • Traverse using the last pointer till we reach the end node of the linked list.
  • Now, point the next node of last to temp.

Follow the below image for a better understanding:

How to insert new node at the end of the linekd list

How to insert new node at the end of the linked list

Below is the implementation of the approach:

C++




// Given a reference (pointer to pointer) to the head
// of a list and an int, appends a new node at the end
void append(Node** head_ref, int new_data)
{
    // 1. allocate node
    Node* new_node = new Node();
 
    // Used in step 5
    Node* last = *head_ref;
 
    // 2. Put in the data
    new_node->data = new_data;
 
    // 3. This new node is going to be
    // the last node, so make next of
    // it as NULL
    new_node->next = NULL;
 
    // 4. If the Linked List is empty,
    // then make the new node as head
    if (*head_ref == NULL) {
        *head_ref = new_node;
        return;
    }
 
    // 5. Else traverse till the last node
    while (last->next != NULL) {
        last = last->next;
    }
 
    // 6. Change the next of last node
    last->next = new_node;
    return;
}

C




/* Given a reference (pointer to pointer) to the head
   of a list and an int, appends a new node at the end  */
void append(struct Node** head_ref, int new_data)
{
    /* 1. allocate node */
    struct Node* new_node
        = (struct Node*)malloc(sizeof(struct Node));
 
    struct Node* last = *head_ref; /* used in step 5*/
 
    /* 2. put in the data  */
    new_node->data = new_data;
 
    /* 3. This new node is going to be the last node, so
       make next of it as NULL*/
    new_node->next = NULL;
 
    /* 4. If the Linked List is empty, then make the new
     * node as head */
    if (*head_ref == NULL) {
        *head_ref = new_node;
        return;
    }
 
    /* 5. Else traverse till the last node */
    while (last->next != NULL)
        last = last->next;
 
    /* 6. Change the next of last node */
    last->next = new_node;
    return;
}

Java




/* Appends a new node at the end.  This method is
   defined inside LinkedList class shown above */
public void append(int new_data)
{
    /* 1. Allocate the Node &
       2. Put in the data
       3. Set next as null */
    Node new_node = new Node(new_data);
 
    /* 4. If the Linked List is empty, then make the
           new node as head */
    if (head == null) {
        head = new Node(new_data);
        return;
    }
 
    /* 4. This new node is going to be the last node, so
         make next of it as null */
    new_node.next = null;
 
    /* 5. Else traverse till the last node */
    Node last = head;
    while (last.next != null)
        last = last.next;
 
    /* 6. Change the next of last node */
    last.next = new_node;
    return;
}

Python3




# This function is defined in Linked List class
# Appends a new node at the end.  This method is
# defined inside LinkedList class shown above
def append(self, new_data):
 
        # 1. Create a new node
        # 2. Put in the data
        # 3. Set next as None
        new_node = Node(new_data)
 
        # 4. If the Linked List is empty, then make the
        # new node as head
        if self.head is None:
            self.head = new_node
            return
 
        # 5. Else traverse till the last node
        last = self.head
        while (last.next):
            last = last.next
 
        # 6. Change the next of last node
        last.next = new_node

C#




/* Appends a new node at the end. This method is
defined inside LinkedList class shown above */
public void append(int new_data)
{
    /* 1. Allocate the Node &
    2. Put in the data
    3. Set next as null */
    Node new_node = new Node(new_data);
 
    /* 4. If the Linked List is empty,
       then make the new node as head */
    if (head == null) {
        head = new Node(new_data);
        return;
    }
 
    /* 4. This new node is going to be
    the last node, so make next of it as null */
    new_node.next = null;
 
    /* 5. Else traverse till the last node */
    Node last = head;
    while (last.next != null)
        last = last.next;
 
    /* 6. Change the next of last node */
    last.next = new_node;
    return;
}

Javascript




<script>
 
/* Appends a new node at the end.  This method is
   defined inside LinkedList class shown above */
 function append(new_data)
{
    /* 1. Allocate the Node &
       2. Put in the data
       3. Set next as null */
    var new_node = new Node(new_data);
 
    /* 4. If the Linked List is empty, then make the
           new node as head */
    if (head == null)
    {
        head = new Node(new_data);
        return;
    }
 
    /* 4. This new node is going to be the last node, so
         make next of it as null */
    new_node.next = null;
 
    /* 5. Else traverse till the last node */
    var last = head;
    while (last.next != null)
        last = last.next;
 
    /* 6. Change the next of last node */
    last.next = new_node;
    return;
}
 
// This code contributed by aashish1995
</script>

Time Complexity: O(N) where N is the length of the linked list
Auxiliary Space: O(1)


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