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Input and Output in Python

Last Updated : 19 Mar, 2024
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Understanding input and output operations is fundamental to Python programming. With the print() function, you can display output in various formats, while the input() function enables interaction with users by gathering input during program execution.

Python Basic Input and Output

In this introductory guide, we’ll explore the essentials of Python’s basic input and output functionalities, empowering you to efficiently interact with users and display information.

Print Output in Python

At its core, printing output in Python is straightforward, thanks to the print() function. This function allows us to display text, variables, and expressions on the console. Let’s begin with the basic usage of the print() function:

How to Print Output in Python

In this example, “Hello, World!” is a string literal enclosed within double quotes. When executed, this statement will output the text to the console.

Python3
print("Hello, World!")

Output
Hello, World!



Print Single and Multiple variable in Python

The code assigns values to variables name and age, then prints them with labels.

Python3
name = "Alice"
age = 30
print("Name:", name, "Age:", age)

Output
Name: Alice Age: 30



Format Output Handling in Python

Output formatting in Python with various techniques including the format() method, manipulation of the sep and end parameters, f-strings, and the versatile % operator. These methods enable precise control over how data is displayed, enhancing the readability and effectiveness of your Python programs.

Example 1: Using Format()

Python3
amount = 150.75
print("Amount: ${:.2f}".format(amount))

Output
Amount: $150.75



Example 2: Using sep and end parameter

Python3
# end Parameter with '@'
print("Python", end='@')
print("GeeksforGeeks")


# Seprating with Comma
print('G', 'F', 'G', sep='')

# for formatting a date
print('09', '12', '2016', sep='-')

# another example
print('pratik', 'geeksforgeeks', sep='@')

Output
Python@GeeksforGeeks
GFG
09-12-2016
pratik@geeksforgeeks



Example 3: Using f-string

Python3
name = 'Tushar'
age = 23
print(f"Hello, My name is {name} and I'm {age} years old.")

Output
Hello, My name is Tushar and I'm 23 years old.



Example 4: Using % Operator

We can use ‘%’ operator. % values are replaced with zero or more value of elements. The formatting using % is similar to that of ‘printf’ in the C programming language.

  • %d –integer
  • %f – float
  • %s – string
  • %x –hexadecimal
  • %o – octal
Python3
# Taking input from the user
num = int(input("Enter a value: "))

add = num + 5

# Output
print("The sum is %d" %add)

Output

Enter a value: 50The sum is 55

Take Multiple Input in Python

The code takes input from the user in a single line, splitting the values entered by the user into separate variables for each value using the split() method. Then, it prints the values with corresponding labels, either two or three, based on the number of inputs provided by the user.

Python3
# taking two inputs at a time
x, y = input("Enter two values: ").split()
print("Number of boys: ", x)
print("Number of girls: ", y)
 
# taking three inputs at a time
x, y, z = input("Enter three values: ").split()
print("Total number of students: ", x)
print("Number of boys is : ", y)
print("Number of girls is : ", z)

Output

Enter two values: 5 10
Number of boys: 5
Number of girls: 10
Enter three values: 5 10 15
Total number of students: 5
Number of boys is : 10
Number of girls is : 15

Take Conditional Input from user in Python

In this example, the program prompts the user to enter their age. The input is converted to an integer using the int() function. Then, the program uses conditional statements to check the age range and prints a message based on whether the user is a minor, an adult, or a senior citizen.

Python3
# Prompting the user for input
age_input = input("Enter your age: ")

# Converting the input to an integer
age = int(age_input)

# Checking conditions based on user input
if age < 0:
    print("Please enter a valid age.")
elif age < 18:
    print("You are a minor.")
elif age >= 18 and age < 65:
    print("You are an adult.")
else:
    print("You are a senior citizen.")

Output

Enter your age: 22
You are an adult.

Taking input in Python

Python input() function is used to take user input. By default, it returns the user input in form of a string. 

Syntax: input(prompt)

How to Take Input in Python

The code prompts the user to input their name, stores it in the variable “name”, and then prints a greeting message addressing the user by their entered name.

Python3
name = input("Enter your name: ")
print("Hello,", name, "! Welcome!")

Output

Enter your name: GeeksforGeeks
Hello, GeeksforGeeks ! Welcome!

How to Change the Type of Input in Python

By default input() function helps in taking user input as string. If any user wants to take input as int or float, we just need to typecast it.

How to Print Names in Python

The code prompts the user to input a string (the color of a rose), assigns it to the variable color, and then prints the inputted color.

Python3
# Taking input as string
color = input("What color is rose?: ")
print(color)

Output

What color is rose?: Red
Red

How to Print Numbers in Python

The code prompts the user to input an integer representing the number of roses, converts the input to an integer using typecasting, and then prints the integer value.

Python3
# Taking input as int
# Typecasting to int
n = int(input("How many roses?: "))
print(n)

Output

How many roses?: 8
8

How to Print Float/Decimal Number in Python

The code prompts the user to input the price of each rose as a floating-point number, converts the input to a float using typecasting, and then prints the price.

Python3
# Taking input as float
# Typecasting to float
price = float(input("Price of each rose?: "))
print(price)

Output

Price of each rose?: 50.30
50.3

Find DataType of Input in Python

In the given example, we are printing the type of variable x. We will determine the type of an object in Python.

Python3
a = "Hello World"
b = 10
c = 11.22
d = ("Geeks", "for", "Geeks")
e = ["Geeks", "for", "Geeks"]
f = {"Geeks": 1, "for":2, "Geeks":3}


print(type(a))
print(type(b))
print(type(c))
print(type(d))
print(type(e))
print(type(f))

Output

<class 'str'>
<class 'int'>
<class 'float'>
<class 'tuple'>
<class 'list'>
<class 'dict'>



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