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Implementing Inorder, Preorder, Postorder Using Stack in Java
  • Difficulty Level : Expert
  • Last Updated : 04 Jan, 2021

Data structures of two types of Linear Data Structure and the second is Non-linear Data Structure the main difference between these Data structures is the way of transverse the elements of these data structures. Linear Data Structure Transverse all elements in a single run whereas Non-Linear Data structure Transverse all elements in Hierarchy way. 

In this article, we will implement different types of Depth First Traversals in the Binary Tree of Non-Linear Data structure using the stack data structure. 

 Input Binary Tree:



Depth First Traversals:

  1. Inorder (Left, Root, Right) : 4 2 5 1 3
  2. Preorder (Root, Left, Right) : 1 2 4 5 3
  3. Postorder (Left, Right, Root) : 4 5 2 3 1

A. Inorder Traversal

1. Create an empty stack S.

2. Initialize the current node as root.

3. Push the current node to S and set current = current->left until the current is NULL.

4. If the current is NULL and the stack is not empty then 

  • Pop the top item from the stack.
  • Print the popped item, set current = popped_item->right 
  • Go to step 3.

5. If the current is NULL and the stack is empty then we are done.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

Java




// Non-Recursive Java program for inorder traversal
import java.util.Stack;
  
// Class containing left and right child of
// current node and key value
class Node {
    int data;
    Node left, right;
  
    public Node(int item)
    {
        data = item;
        left = right = null;
    }
}
  
// Class to print the inorder traversal
class BinaryTree {
    Node root;
    void inorder()
    {
        if (root == null)
            return;
  
        Stack<Node> s = new Stack<Node>();
        Node curr = root;
  
        // traverse the tree
        while (curr != null || s.size() > 0) {
  
            // Reach the left most
            // Node of the current Node
            while (curr != null) {
                // place pointer to a tree node on
                // the stack before traversing
                // the node's left subtree
                s.push(curr);
                curr = curr.left;
            }
  
            // Current must be NULL at this point
            curr = s.pop();
  
            System.out.print(curr.data + " ");
  
            // we have visited the node and its
            // left subtree. Now, it's right
            // subtree's turn
            curr = curr.right;
        }
    }
  
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
  
        // Creating a binary tree and
        // entering the nodes
        BinaryTree tree = new BinaryTree();
        tree.root = new Node(1);
        tree.root.left = new Node(2);
        tree.root.right = new Node(3);
        tree.root.left.left = new Node(4);
        tree.root.left.right = new Node(5);
        tree.inorder();
    }
}
Output



4 2 5 1 3
  • TimeComplexity: O(n)
  • SpaceComplexity: O(n)

B. Preorder Traversal

There are two approaches for Preorder Transversal of Binary Tree using the Stack data structure:

Approach 1: This approach is totally the same which discussed in the above Transversal.

  1. Create an empty stack S.
  2. Initialize the current node as root.
  3. Push the current node to S and set current = current->left print the peek element in the stack until the current is NULL.
  4. If current is NULL and stack is not empty then 
        a) Pop the top item from stack.
        b) set current = popped_item->right.
        c) Go to step 3.
  5. If the current is NULL and the stack is empty then we are done.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

Java




// Java Program for Pre order Traversal
import java.util.*;
import java.io.*;
class Node {
    int data;
    Node left, right;
  
    public Node(int item)
    {
        data = item;
        left = right = null;
    }
}
  
// Class to print the preorder traversal
class BinaryTree {
    Node root;
    void preorder()
    {
        if (root == null)
            return;
  
        Stack<Node> s = new Stack<Node>();
        Node curr = root;
  
        // traverse the tree
        while (curr != null || s.size() > 0) {
  
            // Reach the left most
            // Node of the curr Node
            while (curr != null) {
                // place pointer to a tree node on
                // the stack before traversing
                // the node's left subtree
                s.push(curr);
                // print the peak element
                System.out.print(s.peek().data + " ");
  
                curr = curr.left;
            }
  
            // Current must be NULL at this point
            curr = s.pop();
  
            // we have visited the node and its
            // left subtree. Now, it's right
            // subtree's turn
            curr = curr.right;
        }
    }
  
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
  
        // creating a binary tree and
        // entering the nodes
        BinaryTree tree = new BinaryTree();
        tree.root = new Node(1);
        tree.root.left = new Node(2);
        tree.root.right = new Node(3);
        tree.root.left.left = new Node(4);
        tree.root.left.right = new Node(5);
        tree.preorder();
    }
}
Output
1 2 4 5 3
  • Time Complexity: O(n)
  • Space Complexity: O(n)

Approach 2: In Preorder Transversal, First print the root element first then the left subtree, and then the right subtree. We know that Stack data structure follows LIFO(Last in First Out), So we take the advantage of this feature of this stack we first push the right part of the current tree and after the left part of the current tree, and in every iteration, we pop the peak element from stack and print and then again push right part of the pop element and left part of the pop element till the size of the stack is not equal to 1 because we have already printed the first element.

Algorithm:

  • Create an empty stack S.
  • Print the root element.
  • Push the right subtree to the stack.
  • Push the left subtree to the stack.
  • If the stack size is not 1 then
    • Pop the top item from the stack.
    • print the element
    • Push right Subtree of pop element to the stack.
    • Push left  Subtree of pop element to the stack.
  • If the Size of the stack is 1 return to the main method

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

Java




// Non-Recursive Java Program for preorder traversal
import java.util.Stack;
// Class containing left and right child of
// current node and key value
class Node {
    int data;
    Node left, right;
  
    public Node(int item)
    {
        data = item;
        left = right = null;
    }
}
  
// Class to print the preorder traversal
class BinaryTree {
    Node root;
    void preorder()
    {
        if (root == null) {
            return;
        }
        Stack<Node> S = new Stack<>();
  
        // Push root element in the stack
        S.add(root);
  
        // print the root element
        System.out.print(root.data + " ");
  
        // Push right subtree to the stack
        if (root.right != null) {
            S.add(root.right);
        }
        // Push left subtree to the stack
        if (root.left != null) {
            S.add(root.left);
        }
        // Iterate till Size of the Stack not equal to 1
        while (S.size() != 1) {
            // Peek element of the stack
            Node temp = S.peek();
            // pop the element from the stack
            S.pop();
  
            if (temp != null) {
                // print the pop element
                System.out.print(temp.data + " ");
  
                // Push right subtree of the pop element
                if (temp.right != null) {
                    S.add(temp.right);
                }
                // Push left subtree of the pop element
                if (temp.left != null) {
                    S.add(temp.left);
                }
            }
        }
    }
  
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
  
        // creating a binary tree and
        // entering the nodes
        BinaryTree tree = new BinaryTree();
        tree.root = new Node(1);
        tree.root.left = new Node(2);
        tree.root.right = new Node(3);
        tree.root.left.left = new Node(4);
        tree.root.left.right = new Node(5);
        tree.preorder();
    }
}
Output
1 2 4 5 3
  • TimeComplexity: O(n)
  • SpaceComplexity: O(n)

C. PostOrder Traversal

1. Create an empty stack

2. Do the following while the root is not NULL

  • Push root’s right child and then the root to stack.
  • Set root as root’s left child.

3. Pop an item from the stack and set it as root.

  • If the popped item has a right child and the right child is at top of the stack, then remove the right child from the stack, push the root back, and set the root as root’s right child.
  • Else print root’s data and set root as NULL.

4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 while the stack is not empty.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

Java




// Java program for iterative postorder
// traversal using stack
  
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Stack;
  
// A binary tree node
class Node {
    int data;
    Node left, right;
  
    Node(int item)
    {
        data = item;
        left = right;
    }
}
  
class BinaryTree {
    Node root;
  
    // An iterative function to do postorder traversal
    // of a given binary tree
    void postOrder(Node node)
    {
        Stack<Node> S = new Stack<Node>();
  
        // Check for empty tree
        if (node == null)
            return;
        S.push(node);
        Node prev = null;
        while (!S.isEmpty()) {
            Node current = S.peek();
  
            // go down the tree in search of a leaf an if so
            // process it and pop stack otherwise move down
            if (prev == null || prev.left == current
                || prev.right == current) {
                if (current.left != null)
                    S.push(current.left);
                else if (current.right != null)
                    S.push(current.right);
                else {
                    S.pop();
                    System.out.print(current.data + " ");
                }
  
                // go up the tree from left node, if the
                // child is right push it onto stack
                // otherwise process parent and pop
            }
            else if (current.left == prev) {
                if (current.right != null)
                    S.push(current.right);
                else {
                    S.pop();
                    System.out.print(current.data + " ");
                }
  
                // go up the tree from right node and after
                // coming back from right node process parent
                // and pop stack
            }
            else if (current.right == prev) {
                S.pop();
                System.out.print(current.data + " ");
            }
  
            prev = current;
        }
    }
  
    // Driver program to test above functions
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        BinaryTree tree = new BinaryTree();
  
        // Let us create trees shown in above diagram
        tree.root = new Node(1);
        tree.root.left = new Node(2);
        tree.root.right = new Node(3);
        tree.root.left.left = new Node(4);
        tree.root.left.right = new Node(5);
  
        tree.postOrder(tree.root);
    }
}
Output
4 5 2 3 1
  • Time Complexity: O(n)
  • Space Complexity: O(n)

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