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Implement a Phone Directory

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Given a list of contacts that exist in a phone directory. The task is to implement a search query for the phone directory. The search query on a string ‘str’ displays all the contacts which prefixes as ‘str’. One special property of the search function is that when a user searches for a contact from the contact list then suggestions (Contacts with prefix as the string entered so for) are shown after user enters each character.
Note: Contacts in the list consist of only lowercase alphabets. Example:

Input : contacts [] = {“gforgeeks” , “geeksquiz” }
        Query String = “gekk”

Output : Suggestions based on "g" are 
         geeksquiz
         gforgeeks

         Suggestions based on "ge" are 
         geeksquiz

         No Results Found for "gek" 

         No Results Found for "gekk" 

Phone Directory can be efficiently implemented using Trie Data Structure. We insert all the contacts into Trie. Generally search query on a Trie is to determine whether the string is present or not in the trie, but in this case we are asked to find all the strings with each prefix of ‘str’. This is equivalent to doing a DFS traversal on a graph. From a Trie node, visit adjacent Trie nodes and do this recursively until there are no more adjacent. This recursive function will take 2 arguments one as Trie Node which points to the current Trie Node being visited and other as the string which stores the string found so far with prefix as ‘str’. Each Trie Node stores a boolean variable ‘isLast’ which is true if the node represents end of a contact(word).

// This function displays all words with given
// prefix.  "node" represents last node when 
// path from root follows characters of "prefix".
displayContacts (TreiNode node, string prefix)
    If (node.isLast is true)
        display prefix

        // finding adjacent nodes
    for each character ‘i’ in lower case Alphabets 
        if (node.child[i] != NULL)
            displayContacts(node.child[i], prefix+i)

User will enter the string character by character and we need to display suggestions with the prefix formed after every entered character. So one approach to find the prefix starting with the string formed is to check if the prefix exists in the Trie, if yes then call the displayContacts() function. In this approach after every entered character we check if the string exists in the Trie. Instead of checking again and again, we can maintain a pointer prevNode‘ that points to the TrieNode which corresponds to the last entered character by the user, now we need to check the child node for the ‘prevNode’ when user enters another character to check if it exists in the Trie. If the new prefix is not in the Trie, then all the string which are formed by entering characters after ‘prefix’ can’t be found in Trie too. So we break the loop that is being used to generate prefixes one by one and print “No Result Found” for all remaining characters. 

C++

// C++ Program to Implement a Phone
// Directory Using Trie Data Structure
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
struct TrieNode {
    // Each Trie Node contains a Map 'child'
    // where each alphabet points to a Trie
    // Node.
    // We can also use a fixed size array of
    // size 256.
    unordered_map<char, TrieNode*> child;
 
    // 'isLast' is true if the node represents
    // end of a contact
    bool isLast;
 
    // Default Constructor
    TrieNode()
    {
        // Initialize all the Trie nodes with NULL
        for (char i = 'a'; i <= 'z'; i++)
            child[i] = NULL;
 
        isLast = false;
    }
};
 
// Making root NULL for ease so that it doesn't
// have to be passed to all functions.
TrieNode* root = NULL;
 
// Insert a Contact into the Trie
void insert(string s)
{
    int len = s.length();
 
    // 'itr' is used to iterate the Trie Nodes
    TrieNode* itr = root;
    for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) {
        // Check if the s[i] is already present in
        // Trie
        TrieNode* nextNode = itr->child[s[i]];
        if (nextNode == NULL) {
            // If not found then create a new TrieNode
            nextNode = new TrieNode();
 
            // Insert into the Map
            itr->child[s[i]] = nextNode;
        }
 
        // Move the iterator('itr') ,to point to next
        // Trie Node
        itr = nextNode;
 
        // If its the last character of the string 's'
        // then mark 'isLast' as true
        if (i == len - 1)
            itr->isLast = true;
    }
}
 
// This function simply displays all dictionary words
// going through current node. String 'prefix'
// represents string corresponding to the path from
// root to curNode.
void displayContactsUtil(TrieNode* curNode, string prefix)
{
    // Check if the string 'prefix' ends at this Node
    // If yes then display the string found so far
    if (curNode->isLast)
        cout << prefix << endl;
 
    // Find all the adjacent Nodes to the current
    // Node and then call the function recursively
    // This is similar to performing DFS on a graph
    for (char i = 'a'; i <= 'z'; i++) {
        TrieNode* nextNode = curNode->child[i];
        if (nextNode != NULL)
            displayContactsUtil(nextNode, prefix + (char)i);
    }
}
 
// Display suggestions after every character enter by
// the user for a given query string 'str'
void displayContacts(string str)
{
    TrieNode* prevNode = root;
 
    string prefix = "";
    int len = str.length();
 
    // Display the contact List for string formed
    // after entering every character
    int i;
    for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
        // 'prefix' stores the string formed so far
        prefix += (char)str[i];
 
        // Get the last character entered
        char lastChar = prefix[i];
 
        // Find the Node corresponding to the last
        // character of 'prefix' which is pointed by
        // prevNode of the Trie
        TrieNode* curNode = prevNode->child[lastChar];
 
        // If nothing found, then break the loop as
        // no more prefixes are going to be present.
        if (curNode == NULL) {
            cout << "\nNo Results Found for " << prefix
                 << "\n";
            i++;
            break;
        }
 
        // If present in trie then display all
        // the contacts with given prefix.
        cout << "\nSuggestions based on " << prefix
             << "are ";
        displayContactsUtil(curNode, prefix);
 
        // Change prevNode for next prefix
        prevNode = curNode;
    }
 
    // Once search fails for a prefix, we print
    // "Not Results Found" for all remaining
    // characters of current query string "str".
    for (; i < len; i++) {
        prefix += (char)str[i];
        cout << "\nNo Results Found for " << prefix << "\n";
    }
}
 
// Insert all the Contacts into the Trie
void insertIntoTrie(string contacts[], int n)
{
    // Initialize root Node
    root = new TrieNode();
 
    // Insert each contact into the trie
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
        insert(contacts[i]);
}
 
// Driver program to test above functions
int main()
{
    // Contact list of the User
    string contacts[] = { "gforgeeks", "geeksquiz" };
 
    // Size of the Contact List
    int n = sizeof(contacts) / sizeof(string);
 
    // Insert all the Contacts into Trie
    insertIntoTrie(contacts, n);
 
    string query = "gekk";
 
    // Note that the user will enter 'g' then 'e', so
    // first display all the strings with prefix as 'g'
    // and then all the strings with prefix as 'ge'
    displayContacts(query);
 
    return 0;
}

                    

Java

// Java Program to Implement a Phone
// Directory Using Trie Data Structure
import java.util.*;
 
class TrieNode
{
    // Each Trie Node contains a Map 'child'
    // where each alphabet points to a Trie
    // Node.
    HashMap<Character,TrieNode> child;
 
    // 'isLast' is true if the node represents
    // end of a contact
    boolean isLast;
 
    // Default Constructor
    public TrieNode()
    {
        child = new HashMap<Character,TrieNode>();
 
        // Initialize all the Trie nodes with NULL
        for (char i = 'a'; i <= 'z'; i++)
             child.put(i,null);
 
        isLast = false;
    }
}
 
class Trie
{
    TrieNode root;
 
    // Insert all the Contacts into the Trie
    public void insertIntoTrie(String contacts[])
    {
        root = new TrieNode();
        int n = contacts.length;
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
        {
            insert(contacts[i]);
        }
    }
 
    // Insert a Contact into the Trie
    public void insert(String s)
    {
        int len = s.length();
 
        // 'itr' is used to iterate the Trie Nodes
        TrieNode itr = root;
        for (int i = 0; i < len; i++)
        {
            // Check if the s[i] is already present in
            // Trie
            TrieNode nextNode = itr.child.get(s.charAt(i));
            if (nextNode == null)
            {
                // If not found then create a new TrieNode
                nextNode = new TrieNode();
 
                // Insert into the HashMap
                itr.child.put(s.charAt(i),nextNode);
            }
 
            // Move the iterator('itr') ,to point to next
            // Trie Node
            itr = nextNode;
 
            // If its the last character of the string 's'
            // then mark 'isLast' as true
            if (i == len - 1)
                itr.isLast = true;
        }
    }
 
    // This function simply displays all dictionary words
    // going through current node.  String 'prefix'
    // represents string corresponding to the path from
    // root to curNode.
    public void displayContactsUtil(TrieNode curNode,
                                   String prefix)
    {
 
        // Check if the string 'prefix' ends at this Node
        // If yes then display the string found so far
        if (curNode.isLast)
            System.out.println(prefix);
 
        // Find all the adjacent Nodes to the current
        // Node and then call the function recursively
        // This is similar to performing DFS on a graph
        for (char i = 'a'; i <= 'z'; i++)
        {
            TrieNode nextNode = curNode.child.get(i);
            if (nextNode != null)
            {
                displayContactsUtil(nextNode, prefix + i);
            }
        }
    }
 
    // Display suggestions after every character enter by
    // the user for a given string 'str'
    void displayContacts(String str)
    {
        TrieNode prevNode = root;
 
        // 'flag' denotes whether the string entered
        // so far is present in the Contact List
 
        String prefix = "";
        int len = str.length();
 
        // Display the contact List for string formed
        // after entering every character
        int i;
        for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
        {
            // 'str' stores the string entered so far
            prefix += str.charAt(i);
 
            // Get the last character entered
            char lastChar = prefix.charAt(i);
 
            // Find the Node corresponding to the last
            // character of 'str' which is pointed by
            // prevNode of the Trie
            TrieNode curNode = prevNode.child.get(lastChar);
 
            // If nothing found, then break the loop as
            // no more prefixes are going to be present.
            if (curNode == null)
            {
                System.out.println("\nNo Results Found for "
                                          + prefix);
                i++;
                break;
            }
 
            // If present in trie then display all
            // the contacts with given prefix.
            System.out.println("\nSuggestions based on "
                                    + prefix + " are ");
            displayContactsUtil(curNode, prefix);
 
            // Change prevNode for next prefix
            prevNode = curNode;
        }
 
        for ( ; i < len; i++)
        {
            prefix += str.charAt(i);
            System.out.println("\nNo Results Found for "
                                          + prefix);
        }
    }
}
 
// Driver code
class Main
{
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        Trie trie = new Trie();
 
        String contacts [] = {"gforgeeks", "geeksquiz"};
 
        trie.insertIntoTrie(contacts);
 
        String query = "gekk";
 
        // Note that the user will enter 'g' then 'e' so
        // first display all the strings with prefix as 'g'
        // and then all the strings with prefix as 'ge'
        trie.displayContacts(query);
    }
}

                    

Python3

# Python Program to Implement a Phone
# Directory Using Trie Data Structure
 
class TrieNode:
    def __init__(self):
       
        # Each Trie Node contains a Map 'child'
        # where each alphabet points to a Trie
        # Node.
        self.child = {}
        self.is_last = False
 
# Making root NULL for ease so that it doesn't
# have to be passed to all functions.
root = TrieNode()
 
# Insert a Contact into the Trie
def insert(string):
   
    # 'itr' is used to iterate the Trie Nodes
    itr = root
    for char in string:
       
        # Check if the s[i] is already present in
        # Trie
        if char not in itr.child:
           
            #  If not found then create a new TrieNode
            itr.child[char] = TrieNode()
             
        # Move the iterator('itr') ,to point to next
        # Trie Node
        itr = itr.child[char]
         
    # If its the last character of the string 's'
    # then mark 'isLast' as true
    itr.is_last = True
 
# This function simply displays all dictionary words
# going through current node. String 'prefix'
# represents string corresponding to the path from
# root to curNode.
def display_contacts_util(cur_node, prefix):
   
    # Check if the string 'prefix' ends at this Node
    # If yes then display the string found so far
    if cur_node.is_last:
        print(prefix)
         
    # Find all the adjacent Nodes to the current
    # Node and then call the function recursively
    # This is similar to performing DFS on a graph
    for i in range(ord('a'), ord('z') + 1):
        char = chr(i)
        next_node = cur_node.child.get(char)
        if next_node:
            display_contacts_util(next_node, prefix + char)
             
# Display suggestions after every character enter by
# the user for a given query string 'str'
def displayContacts(string):
    prev_node = root
    prefix = ""
     
    # Display the contact List for string formed
    # after entering every character
    for i, char in enumerate(string):
       
        # 'prefix' stores the string formed so far
        prefix += char
         
        # Find the Node corresponding to the last
        # character of 'prefix' which is pointed by
        # prevNode of the Trie
        cur_node = prev_node.child.get(char)
         
        # If nothing found, then break the loop as
        # no more prefixes are going to be present.
        if not cur_node:
            print(f"No Results Found for {prefix}\n")
            break
        # If present in trie then display all
        # the contacts with given prefix.
        print(f"Suggestions based on {prefix} are ",end=" ")
        display_contacts_util(cur_node, prefix)
        print()
        # Change prevNode for next prefix
        prev_node = cur_node
         
    # Once search fails for a prefix, we print
    # "Not Results Found" for all remaining
    # characters of current query string "str".
    for char in string[i+1:]:
        prefix += char
        print(f"No Results Found for {prefix}\n")
 
# Insert all the Contacts into the Trie
def insertIntoTrie(contacts):
    # Insert each contact into the trie
    for contact in contacts:
        insert(contact)
 
         
# Driver program to test above functions
 
# Contact list of the User       
contacts=["gforgeeks","geeksquiz"]
 
# Size of the Contact List
n=len(contacts)
 
# Insert all the Contacts into Trie
insertIntoTrie(contacts)
query = "gekk"
 
# Note that the user will enter 'g' then 'e', so
# first display all the strings with prefix as 'g'
# and then all the strings with prefix as 'ge'
displayContacts(query)
 
# This code is contributed by Aman Kumar

                    

C#

// C# Program to Implement a Phone
// Directory Using Trie Data Structure
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
 
class TrieNode
{
    // Each Trie Node contains a Map 'child'
    // where each alphabet points to a Trie
    // Node.
    public Dictionary<char, TrieNode> child;
 
    // 'isLast' is true if the node represents
    // end of a contact
    public bool isLast;
 
    // Default Constructor
    public TrieNode()
    {
        child = new Dictionary<char, TrieNode>();
 
        // Initialize all the Trie nodes with NULL
        for (char i = 'a'; i <= 'z'; i++)
            child.Add(i, null);
 
        isLast = false;
    }
}
 
class Trie
{
    public TrieNode root;
 
    // Insert all the Contacts into the Trie
    public void insertIntoTrie(String []contacts)
    {
        root = new TrieNode();
        int n = contacts.Length;
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
        {
            insert(contacts[i]);
        }
    }
 
    // Insert a Contact into the Trie
    public void insert(String s)
    {
        int len = s.Length;
 
        // 'itr' is used to iterate the Trie Nodes
        TrieNode itr = root;
        for (int i = 0; i < len; i++)
        {
            // Check if the s[i] is already present in
            // Trie
            TrieNode nextNode = itr.child[s[i]];
            if (nextNode == null)
            {
                // If not found then create a new TrieNode
                nextNode = new TrieNode();
 
                // Insert into the Dictionary
                if(itr.child.ContainsKey(s[i]))
                    itr.child[s[i]] = nextNode;
                else
                    itr.child.Add(s[i], nextNode);
            }
 
            // Move the iterator('itr') ,to point to next
            // Trie Node
            itr = nextNode;
 
            // If its the last character of the string 's'
            // then mark 'isLast' as true
            if (i == len - 1)
                itr.isLast = true;
        }
    }
 
    // This function simply displays all dictionary words
    // going through current node. String 'prefix'
    // represents string corresponding to the path from
    // root to curNode.
    public void displayContactsUtil(TrieNode curNode,
                                    String prefix)
    {
 
        // Check if the string 'prefix' ends at this Node
        // If yes then display the string found so far
        if (curNode.isLast)
            Console.WriteLine(prefix);
 
        // Find all the adjacent Nodes to the current
        // Node and then call the function recursively
        // This is similar to performing DFS on a graph
        for (char i = 'a'; i <= 'z'; i++)
        {
            TrieNode nextNode = curNode.child[i];
            if (nextNode != null)
            {
                displayContactsUtil(nextNode, prefix + i);
            }
        }
    }
 
    // Display suggestions after every character enter by
    // the user for a given string 'str'
    public void displayContacts(String str)
    {
        TrieNode prevNode = root;
 
        // 'flag' denotes whether the string entered
        // so far is present in the Contact List
 
        String prefix = "";
        int len = str.Length;
 
        // Display the contact List for string formed
        // after entering every character
        int i;
        for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
        {
            // 'str' stores the string entered so far
            prefix += str[i];
 
            // Get the last character entered
            char lastChar = prefix[i];
 
            // Find the Node corresponding to the last
            // character of 'str' which is pointed by
            // prevNode of the Trie
            TrieNode curNode = prevNode.child[lastChar];
 
            // If nothing found, then break the loop as
            // no more prefixes are going to be present.
            if (curNode == null)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("\nNo Results Found for "
                                           + prefix);
                i++;
                break;
            }
 
            // If present in trie then display all
            // the contacts with given prefix.
            Console.WriteLine("\nSuggestions based on "    
                                  + prefix + " are ");
            displayContactsUtil(curNode, prefix);
 
            // Change prevNode for next prefix
            prevNode = curNode;
        }
 
        for ( ; i < len; i++)
        {
            prefix += str[i];
            Console.WriteLine("\nNo Results Found for "
                                        + prefix);
        }
    }
}
 
// Driver code
public class GFG
{
    public static void Main(String []args)
    {
        Trie trie = new Trie();
 
        String []contacts = {"gforgeeks", "geeksquiz"};
 
        trie.insertIntoTrie(contacts);
 
        String query = "gekk";
 
        // Note that the user will enter 'g' then 'e' so
        // first display all the strings with prefix as 'g'
        // and then all the strings with prefix as 'ge'
        trie.displayContacts(query);
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by PrinciRaj1992

                    

Javascript

<script>
    // Javascript Program to Implement a Phone
    // Directory Using Trie Data Structure
    class TrieNode {
      constructor() {
    // Each Trie Node contains a Map 'child'
    // where each alphabet points to a Trie
    // Node.
    // We can also use a fixed size array of
    // size 256.
    this.child = {};
    // 'isLast' is true if the node represents
    // end of a contact
    this.isLast = false;
      }
    }
    // Making root NULL for ease so that it doesn't
    // have to be passed to all functions.
    let root = null;
     
    // Insert a Contact into the Trie
    function insert(s) {
      const len = s.length;
      // 'itr' is used to iterate the Trie Nodes
      let itr = root;
      for (let i = 0; i < len; i++) {
    // Check if the s[i] is already present in
        // Trie
    const char = s[i];
    let nextNode = itr.child[char];
    if (nextNode === undefined) {
        // If not found then create a new TrieNode
      nextNode = new TrieNode();
      // Insert into the Map
      itr.child[char] = nextNode;
    }
    // Move the iterator('itr') ,to point to next
        // Trie Node
    itr = nextNode;
    // If its the last character of the string 's'
        // then mark 'isLast' as true
    if (i === len - 1) {
      itr.isLast = true;
    }
      }
    }
     
    // This function simply displays all dictionary words
    // going through current node. String 'prefix'
    // represents string corresponding to the path from
    // root to curNode.
    function displayContactsUtil(curNode, prefix) {
    // Check if the string 'prefix' ends at this Node
    // If yes then display the string found so far
      if (curNode.isLast) {
    document.write(prefix+"<br>");
      }
      // Find all the adjacent Nodes to the current
    // Node and then call the function recursively
    // This is similar to performing DFS on a graph
      for (let i = 97; i <= 122; i++) {
    const char = String.fromCharCode(i);
    const nextNode = curNode.child[char];
    if (nextNode !== undefined) {
      displayContactsUtil(nextNode, prefix + char);
    }
      }
    }
     
    // Display suggestions after every character enter by
    // the user for a given query string 'str'
    function displayContacts(str) {
      let prevNode = root;
      let prefix = "";
      const len = str.length;
      // Display the contact List for string formed
    // after entering every character
      let i;
      for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
    // 'prefix' stores the string formed so far
    prefix += str[i];
     
    // Get the last character entered
    const lastChar = prefix[i];
     
    // Find the Node corresponding to the last
    // character of 'prefix' which is pointed by
    // prevNode of the Trie
    const curNode = prevNode.child[lastChar];
     
     // If nothing found, then break the loop as
     // no more prefixes are going to be present.
    if (curNode === undefined) {
      document.write(`No Results Found for ${prefix}`+"<br>");
      i++;
      break;
    }
    // If present in trie then display all
    // the contacts with given prefix.
    document.write(`Suggestions based on ${prefix} are `);
     
    displayContactsUtil(curNode, prefix);
    document.write("<br>");
    // Change prevNode for next prefix
    prevNode = curNode;
      }
      document.write("<br>");
      // Once search fails for a prefix, we print
    // "Not Results Found" for all remaining
    // characters of current query string "str".
      for (; i < len; i++) {
    prefix += str[i];
    document.write("No Results Found for " + prefix + "<br>");
      }
    }
     
    // Insert all the Contacts into the Trie
    function insertIntoTrie(contacts) {
      // Initialize root Node
      root = new TrieNode();
      const n = contacts.length;
      // Insert each contact into the trie
      for (let i = 0; i < n; i++) {
    insert(contacts[i]);
      }
    }
     
    // Driver program to test above functions
     
    // Contact list of the User
    const contacts = ["gforgeeks", "geeksquiz"];
     
    //Insert all the Contacts into Trie
    insertIntoTrie(contacts);
     
    const query = "gekk";
     
    // Note that the user will enter 'g' then 'e', so
    // first display all the strings with prefix as 'g'
    // and then all the strings with prefix as 'ge'
    displayContacts(query);
     
    // This code is contributed by Utkarsh Kumar.
</script>

                    

Output
Suggestions based on gare geeksquiz
gforgeeks

Suggestions based on geare geeksquiz

No Results Found for gek

No Results Found for gekk

Time Complexity: O(n*m) where n is the number of contacts and m is the maximum length of a contact string.
Auxiliary Space: O(n*m)



Last Updated : 02 Mar, 2023
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