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How to print Superscript and Subscript in Python?

  • Last Updated : 24 Jan, 2021

Whenever we are working with formulas there may be a need of writing the given formula in a given format which may require subscripts or superscripts. There are several methods available to print subscripts and superscripts in Python. We will be discussing two of them below –

Using maketrans() and translate() :

We can make two strings one for the normal characters and the other for the subscript/superscript characters. After this, we can use the maketrans() method which returns a mapping that can be used with the translate() method to replace the specified characters. It can be implemented for superscripts as 

Python3




# function to convert to superscript
def get_super(x):
    normal = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+-=()"
    super_s = "ᴬᴮᶜᴰᴱᶠᴳᴴᴵᴶᴷᴸᴹᴺᴼᴾQᴿˢᵀᵁⱽᵂˣʸᶻᵃᵇᶜᵈᵉᶠᵍʰᶦʲᵏˡᵐⁿᵒᵖ۹ʳˢᵗᵘᵛʷˣʸᶻ⁰¹²³⁴⁵⁶⁷⁸⁹⁺⁻⁼⁽⁾"
    res = x.maketrans(''.join(normal), ''.join(super_s))
    return x.translate(res)
  
# display superscipt
print(get_super('GeeksforGeeks')) #ᴳᵉᵉᵏˢᶠᵒʳᴳᵉᵉᵏˢ

Output:



ᴳᵉᵉᵏˢᶠᵒʳᴳᵉᵉᵏˢ

And for subscripts, we can implement it as

Python3




# function to convert to subscript
def get_sub(x):
    normal = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+-=()"
    sub_s = "ₐ₈CDₑբGₕᵢⱼₖₗₘₙₒₚQᵣₛₜᵤᵥwₓᵧZₐ♭꜀ᑯₑբ₉ₕᵢⱼₖₗₘₙₒₚ૧ᵣₛₜᵤᵥwₓᵧ₂₀₁₂₃₄₅₆₇₈₉₊₋₌₍₎"
    res = x.maketrans(''.join(normal), ''.join(sub_s))
    return x.translate(res)
  
# display subscript
print('H{}SO{}'.format(get_sub('2'),get_sub('4'))) #H₂SO₄

Output:

H₂SO₄

Using Unicode subscripts and superscripts:

The following table gives the subscripts and superscripts of the Unicode characters:

 0123456789ABCDEF
U+207x  
U+208x₌  
U+209x   

With the help of the Unicode character, we can implement this in our codes as –

Python3




# subscript
print(u'H\u2082SO\u2084'# H₂SO₄
  
# superscript
print("x\u00b2 + y\u00b2 = 2"# x² + y² = 2

Output:

H₂SO₄
x² + y² = 2

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