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# How to plot a complex number in Python using Matplotlib ?

• Last Updated : 03 Jan, 2021

In this article we will learn how to plot complex number in Python using Matplotlib. Let’s discuss some concepts :

• Matplotlib : Matplotlib is an amazing visualization library in Python for 2D plots of arrays. Matplotlib is a multi-platform data visualization library built on NumPy arrays and designed to work with the broader SciPy stack. It was introduced by John Hunter in the year 2002.
• Complex number : A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers, and i represents the imaginary unit, satisfying the equation i2 = −1. Because no real number satisfies this equation, i is called an imaginary number.
• Complex number in Python : An complex number is represented by “ x + yi “. Python converts the real numbers x and y into complex using the function complex(x,y). The real part can be accessed using the function real() and imaginary part can be represented by imag().

Approach:

1. Import libraries.
2. Create data of complex numbers
3. Extract real and imaginary parts from complex numbers data
4. Plot the extracted data.

Examples:

To plot complex numbers, we have to extract its real and imaginary part and to extract and create data, we will use some methods that are explained in below examples :

Example 1 : (Simple plot with complex numbers over real and imaginary data)

## Python3

 `# import library``import` `matplotlib.pyplot as plt`` ` `# create data of complex numbers``data ``=` `[``1``+``2j``, ``-``1``+``4j``, ``4``+``3j``, ``-``4``, ``2``-``1j``, ``3``+``9j``, ``-``2``+``6j``, ``5``]`` ` `# extract real part``x ``=` `[ele.real ``for` `ele ``in` `data]``# extract imaginary part``y ``=` `[ele.imag ``for` `ele ``in` `data]`` ` `# plot the complex numbers``plt.scatter(x, y)``plt.ylabel(``'Imaginary'``)``plt.xlabel(``'Real'``)``plt.show()`

Output : Example 2 : (Using numpy for extracting real and imaginary parts)

## Python3

 `# import libraries``import` `matplotlib.pyplot as plt``import` `numpy as np`` ` `# create data of complex numbers``data ``=` `np.array([``1``+``2j``, ``2``-``4j``, ``-``2j``, ``-``4``, ``4``+``1j``, ``3``+``8j``, ``-``2``-``6j``, ``5``])`` ` `# extract real part using numpy array``x ``=` `data.real``# extract imaginary part using numpy array``y ``=` `data.imag`` ` `# plot the complex numbers``plt.plot(x, y, ``'g*'``)``plt.ylabel(``'Imaginary'``)``plt.xlabel(``'Real'``)``plt.show()`

Output : Example 3 : (Using numpy for creating data of complex numbers and extracting real and imaginary parts)

## Python3

 `# import libraries``import` `matplotlib.pyplot as plt``import` `numpy as np`` ` `# create data of complex numbers using numpy``data ``=` `np.arange(``8``) ``+` `1j``*``np.arange(``-``4``, ``4``)`` ` `# extract real part using numpy``x ``=` `data.real``# extract imaginary part using numpy``y ``=` `data.imag`` ` `# plot the complex numbers``plt.plot(x, y, ``'-.r*'``)``plt.ylabel(``'Imaginary'``)``plt.xlabel(``'Real'``)``plt.show()`

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