How to find duplicate elements in a Stream in Java

Given a stream containing some elements, the task is to find the duplicate elements in this stream in Java.

Examples:

Input: Stream = {5, 13, 4, 21, 13, 27, 2, 59, 59, 34}
Output: [59, 13]
Explanation:
The only duplicate elements in the given stream are 59 and 13.



Input: Stream = {5, 13, 4, 21, 27, 2, 59, 34}
Output: []
Explanation:
There are no duplicate elements in the given stream, hence the output is empty.

There are many methods to find duplicate elements in a Stream:

  1. Using Set: Since Set has the property that it cannot contain any duplicate element. So if we add the elements in a Set, it automatically discards the duplicate elements while addition itself.

    Approach:

    • Get the stream of elements in which the duplicates are to be found.
    • Traverse each element of the stream
    • For each element in the stream, if it is not present in the set, add it. This can be done using Set.add() method.
      Set.add()
    • If the element is present in the Set already, then this Set.add() returns false.
    • Hence we can print such elements or collect them for further process. We will print these elements in this case.

    Below is the implementation of the above approach:

    Example:

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    // Java program to find the duplicate
    // elements in a Stream using Set
      
    import java.util.*;
    import java.util.stream.*;
      
    public class GfG {
      
        // Function to find the
        // duplicates in a Stream
        public static <T> Set<T>
        findDuplicateInStream(Stream<T> stream)
        {
      
            // Set to store the duplicate elements
            Set<T> items = new HashSet<>();
      
            // Return the set of duplicate elements
            return stream
      
                // Set.add() returns false
                // if the element was
                // already present in the set.
                // Hence filter such elements
                .filter(n -> !items.add(n))
      
                // Collect duplicate elements
                // in the set
                .collect(Collectors.toSet());
        }
      
        // Driver code
        public static void main(String[] args)
        {
      
            // Initial stream
            Stream<Integer> stream
                = Stream.of(5, 13, 4,
                            21, 13, 27,
                            2, 59, 59, 34);
      
            // Print the found duplicate elements
            System.out.println(
                findDuplicateInStream(stream));
        }
    }

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    Output:

    [59, 13]
    
  2. Using Collectors.groupingBy(): The groupingBy() method of Collectors class in Java groups the objects by some property. So we will pass the property of redundancy and collect the result in a Set.

    Approach:

    • Get the stream of elements in which the duplicates are to be found.
    • Traverse each element of the stream
    • For each element in the stream, group them along with their frequency in a map, using Collectors.groupingBy() method.
      stream.collect(
          Collectors.groupingBy(Function.identity(), 
          Collectors.counting())); 
      
    • Then for each element in the collected map, if the frequency of any element is more than one, then this element is a duplicate element.
    • Hence we can print such elements or collect them for further process. We will print these elements in this case.

    Below is the implementation of the above approach:

    Example:

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    // Java program to find the duplicate
    // elements in a Stream using Collectors.groupingBy()
      
    import java.util.*;
    import java.util.stream.*;
    import java.util.function.Function;
      
    public class GfG {
      
        // Function to find the
        // duplicates in a Stream
        public static <T> Set<T>
        findDuplicateInStream(Stream<T> stream)
        {
      
            // Return the set of duplicate elements
            return stream
      
                // Group the elements along
                // with their frequency in a map
                .collect(
                    Collectors.groupingBy(
                        Function.identity(),
                        Collectors.counting()))
      
                // Convert this map into a stream
                .entrySet()
                .stream()
      
                // Check if frequency > 1
                // for duplicate elements
                .filter(m -> m.getValue() > 1)
      
                // Find such elements
                .map(Map.Entry::getKey)
      
                // And Collect them in a Set
                .collect(Collectors.toSet());
        }
      
        // Driver code
        public static void main(String[] args)
        {
      
            // Initial stream
            Stream<Integer> stream
                = Stream.of(5, 13, 4,
                            21, 13, 27,
                            2, 59, 59, 34);
      
            // Print the found duplicate elements
            System.out.println(
                findDuplicateInStream(stream));
        }
    }

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    Output:



    [59, 13]
    
  3. Using Collections.frequency(): The frequency() method of Collections class in Java, counts the frequency of the specified element in the given list. So we will then find out the elements that have frequency more than 1, which are the duplicate elements.

    Approach:

    • Get the stream of elements in which the duplicates are to be found.
    • Traverse each element of the stream
    • For each element in the stream, count the frequency of each element, using Collections.frequency() method.
      Collections.frequency(list, i) 
      
    • Then for each element in the collection list, if the frequency of any element is more than one, then this element is a duplicate element.
    • Hence we can print such elements or collect them for further process. We will print these elements in this case.

    Below is the implementation of the above approach:

    Example:

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    // Java program to find the duplicate
    // elements in a Stream
    // using Collections.frequency()
      
    import java.util.*;
    import java.util.stream.*;
      
    public class GfG {
      
        // Function to find the
        // duplicates in a Stream
        public static <T> Set<T>
        findDuplicateInStream(List<T> list)
        {
            // Return the set of duplicate elements
            return
      
                // Get the stream from the list
                list.stream()
      
                    // Count the frequency of each element
                    // and filter the elements
                    // with frequency > 1
                    .filter(i -> Collections.frequency(list, i) > 1)
      
                    // And Collect them in a Set
                    .collect(Collectors.toSet());
        }
      
        // Driver code
        public static void main(String[] args)
        {
      
            // Initial stream
            List<Integer> list
                = Arrays.asList(5, 13, 4,
                                21, 13, 27,
                                2, 59, 59, 34);
      
            // Print the found duplicate elements
            System.out.println(
                findDuplicateInStream(list));
        }
    }

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    Output:

    [59, 13]
    

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