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How to Extract Time from Datetime in R ?

  • Last Updated : 30 Jun, 2021

In this article, we are going to extract time from Datetime in R programming language using lubridate() function and format() function.

Note: datetime is in the format of time and date (YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS) i.e. Year:month:day Hours:Minute:Seconds

Where,

  • Year:month:day comes under date
  • Hours:Minute:Seconds comes under time

Method 1: Using format() function

We are going to extract only time and for that create a variable and assign a timestamp to it. Then, extract time from the timestamp. We can do this by using as.POSIXct() function. To get a particular time hour format we can use format() function

Syntax:



format(as.POSIXct(data), format = “%H:%M”)

Parameter:

  • as.POSIXct() is used to extract time from the time stamp
  • format is used to get the time format. Ex : hours:Minutes and seconds
    • format = “%H:%M:%S” (To get hours: minutes :seconds)
    • format = “%H:%M” (To get hours: minutes )
    • format = “%H” (To get hours)
  • data is the time stamp

Example 1:

R




# create variable with one time stamp 
data ="2021/05/25 12:34:25"
                             
# get time from date using format in the 
# form of hours
print(paste(
  "Hours : ", format(as.POSIXct(data), format = "%H")))
  
# get time from date using format in the 
# form of minutes
print(paste(
  "Minutes : ", format(as.POSIXct(data), format = "%M")))
  
# get time from date using format in the 
# form of seconds
print(paste(
  "Seconds : ", format(as.POSIXct(data), format = "%S")))
  
# get time from date using format in the 
# form of minutes
print(paste(
  "Hours and Minutes : ", format(as.POSIXct(data), format = "%H:%M")))
  
# get time from date using format in the 
# form of seconds
print(paste(
  "Time : ", format(as.POSIXct(data), format = "%H:%M:%S")))

Output:

Example 2:

R






# create vector that stores five time stamps
data =c("2021/05/25 12:34:25","2022/05/25 11:39:25",
        "2011/05/25 08:31:25","2013/04/13 1:34:25",
        "2018/05/25 12:34:25")
                             
# get time from date using format in the
# form of seconds
print(paste("Time : ", format(
  as.POSIXct(data), format = "%H:%M:%S")))

Output:

Method 2 : Using lubridate() function

lubridate() package is used to return the time from the datetime individually. It will return hour, minute, and second separately.

  • To get hour from the datetime we will use hour command

Syntax:

hour(datetime)

Returns the time in hours

  • To get minutes from the datetime we will use minute command

Syntax:

minute(datetime)

Returns the time in minutes

  • To get seconds from the datetime we will use second command

Syntax:

second(datetime)

Returns the time in seconds

Example 1:

R




# load the package
library('lubridate')
  
# datetime variable
data ="2021/05/25 12:34:25"
  
# extract hour
hour(data)
  
# extract minute
minute(data)
  
# extract the second
second(data)

Output:




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