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How To Extract Data From Common File Formats in Python?

  • Last Updated : 13 Jan, 2021

Sometimes work with some datasets must have mostly worked with .csv(Comma Separated Value) files only. They are really a great starting point in applying Data Science techniques and algorithms. But many of us will land up in Data Science firms or take up real-world projects in Data Science sooner or later. Unfortunately in real-world projects, the data won’t be available to us in a neat .csv file. There we have to extract data from different sources like images, pdf files, doc files, image files, etc. In this article, we will see the perfect start to tackle those situations.

Below we will see how to extract relevant information from multiple such sources.

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1. Multiple Sheet Excel Files

Note that if the Excel file has a single sheet then the same method to read CSV file (pd.read_csv(‘File.xlsx’)) might work. But it won’t in the case of multiple sheet files as shown in the below image where there are 3 sheets( Sheet1, Sheet2, Sheet3). In this case, it will just return the first sheet.



Excel sheet used: Click Here.

Example: We will see how to read this excel-file.

Python3




# import Pandas library
import pandas as pd
  
# Read our file. Here sheet_name=1
# means we are reading the 2nd sheet or Sheet2
df = pd.read_excel('Sample1.xlsx', sheet_name = 1)
df.head()

Output:

Now let’s read a selected column of the same sheet:

Python3






# Read only column A, B, C of all
# the four columns A,B,C,D in Sheet2
df=pd.read_excel('Sample1.xlsx',
                 sheet_name = 1, usecols = 'A : C')
df.head()

Output:

Now let’s read all sheet together:

Sheet1 contains columns A, B, C; Sheet2 contains A, B, C, D and Sheet3 contains B, D. We will see a simple example below on how to read all the 3 sheets together and merge them into common columns.

Python3




df2 = pd.DataFrame()
for i in df.keys():
    df2 = pd.concat([df2, df[i]], 
                    axis = 0)
  
display(df2)

Output:

2. Extract Text From Images

Now we will discuss how to extract text from images.

For enabling our python program to have Character recognition capabilities, we would be making use of pytesseract OCR library. The library could be installed onto our python environment by executing the following command in the command interpreter of the OS:-

pip install pytesseract

The library (if used on Windows OS) requires the tesseract.exe binary to be also present for proper installation of the library. During the installation of the aforementioned executable, we would be prompted to specify a path for it. This path needs to be remembered as it would be utilized later on in the code. For most installations the path would be C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Tesseract-OCR\\tesseract.exe. 

Image for demonstration:



Python3




# We import necessary libraries. 
# The PIL Library is used to read the images
from PIL import Image
import pytesseract
  
# Read the image
image = Image.open(r'pic.png')
  
# Perform the information extraction from images
# Note below, put the address where tesseract.exe 
# file is located in your system
pytesseract.pytesseract.tesseract_cmd = r'C:\Program Files\Tesseract-OCR\tesseract.exe'
  
print(pytesseract.image_to_string(image))

Output:

GeeksforGeeks

3. Extracting text from Doc File

Here we will extract text from the doc file using docx module.

For installation:

pip install python-docx

Image for demonstration:  Aniket_Doc.docx 

Example 1: First we’ll extract the title:

Python3




# Importing our library and reading the doc file
import docx
doc = docx.Document('csv/g.docx')
  
# Printing the title
print(doc.paragraphs[0].text)

Output:

My Name Aniket

Example 2: Then we’ll extract the different texts present(excluding the table).



Python3




# Getting all the text in the doc file
l=[doc.paragraphs[i].text for i in range(len(doc.paragraphs))]
  
# There might be many useless empty
# strings present so removing them
l=[i for i in l if len(i)!=0]
print(l)

Output:

[‘My Name Aniket’, ‘               Hello I am Aniket’, ‘I am giving tutorial on how to extract text from MS Doc.’, ‘Please go through it carefully.’]

Example 3: Now we’ll extract the table:

Python3




# Since there are only one table in
# our doc file we are using 0. For multiple tables
# you can use suitable for toop
table = doc.tables[0]
  
# Initializing some empty list
list1 = []
list2 = []
  
# Looping through each row of table
for i in range(len(table.rows)):
    
    # Looping through each column of a row
    for j in range(len(table.columns)):
  
        # Extracting the required text
        list1.append(table.rows[i].cells[j].paragraphs[0].text)
  
    list2.append(list1[:])
    list1.clear()
  
print(list2)

Output:

[['A', 'B', 'C'], ['12', 'aNIKET', '@@@'], ['3', 'SOM', '+12&']]

4. Extracting Data From PDF File

The task is to extract Data( Image, text) from PDF in Python. We will extract the images from PDF files and save them using PyMuPDF library. First, we would have to install the PyMuPDF library using Pillow.

pip install PyMuPDF Pillow

Example 1:

Now we will extract data from the pdf version of the same doc file.

Python3






# import module
import fitz
  
# Reading our pdf file
docu=fitz.open('file.pdf')
  
# Initializing an empty list where we will put all text
text_list=[]
  
# Looping through all pages of the pdf file
for i in range(docu.pageCount): 
    
  # Loading each page
  pg=docu.loadPage(i)
    
  # Extracting text from each page
  pg_txt=pg.getText('text')
    
  # Appending text to the empty list
  text_list.append(pg_txt)
    
# Cleaning the text by removing useless
# empty strings and unicode character '\u200b'
text_list=[i.replace(u'\u200b','') for i in text_list[0].split('\n') if len(i.strip()) ! = 0]
print(text_list)

Output:

[‘My Name Aniket ‘, ‘               Hello I am Aniket ‘, ‘I am giving tutorial on how to extract text from MS Doc. ‘, ‘Please go through it carefully. ‘, ‘A ‘, ‘B ‘, ‘C ‘, ’12 ‘, ‘aNIKET ‘, ‘@@@ ‘, ‘3 ‘, ‘SOM ‘, ‘+12& ‘]

Example 2: Extract image from PDF.

Python3




# Iterating through the pages
for current_page in range(len(docu)):
    
  # Getting the images in that page
  for image in docu.getPageImageList(current_page):
      
    # get the XREF of the image . XREF can be thought of a
    # container holding the location of the image
    xref=image[0]
      
    # extract the object i.e,
    # the image in our pdf file at that XREF
    pix=fitz.Pixmap(docu,xref)
      
    # Storing the image as .png
    pix.writePNG('page %s - %s.png'%(current_page,xref))

The image is stored in our current file location as in format page_no.-xref.png. In our case, its name is page 0-7.png.

Now let’s plot view the image.

Python3




# Import necessary library
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
  
# Read and display the image
img=plt.imread('page 0 - 7.png')
plt.imshow(img)

Output:




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