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How To Do Math in Python 3 with Operators?
  • Last Updated : 26 Aug, 2020

Python3 provides us data types like integer and float along with various operators to perform mathematical calculations for graph plotting, machine learning algorithms, Statistical, data analytical purposes. An operator is a symbol that performs specific operations, which is very useful if one is frequently dealing with numbers. Operator precedence specifies the order in which operators are evaluated when two or more operators with different precedence are adjacent in an expression.  Below is a quick reference table for Unary Operators and Arithmetic Operator.

Operators in Python

Type  Operator Name Example Description
 Urinary Operator      – Minus    – x Negates the numeric argument
      + Plus   + x numeric argument unchanged.
      ~ Invert – (x + 1) bit-wise inversion of x
Arithmetic Operator     + Addition    x + y Add two operands using ‘+’ operator in between
       – Subtraction    x – y subtract two operands using the ‘-‘ operator in between
       * Multiplication    x * y Multiply two operands using ‘*’ operator in between
      / Division    x / y Divide left operand with right operand using ‘/’ operator
      // Floor Division   x // y

Divide left operand with right operand using ‘//’ operator

and provide the only quotient as an output

     ** Exponentiation   x ** y Exponentiation (power) x to the power y
      % Modulo   x % y

Divide left operand with right operand using ‘%’ operator

and provide the only remainder as an output



Operator Precedence

Operator Meaning Associativity
      ** Exponent Right-to-left
     ~x  Bitwise NOT (Invert) Left-right
  +x, -x Unary plus, Unary minus Left-right
*, /, //, % Multiplication, Division, Floor division, Modulus Left-right
     +, –  Addition, Subtraction Left-right

Example 1: Unary Operators.

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a = 2.202
b = -2.202
  
# This inverts the sign
# for both integer as 
# well as float type
c = -a
print("Minus operator value 1:", c)
c = -b
print("Minus operator value 2:", c)
  
# This does not inverts the sign
# for both integer as well
# as float type
c = +a
print("Plus operator value 1:", c)
c = +b
print("Plus operator value 2:", c)
  
a = 2
b = -2
  
# This inverts the sign only
# for integer type as perform 
# operation as per this '-(x + 1)'.
c = ~a  # -(2 + 1)
print("Invert operator value 1:", c)
c = ~b     # -(-2 + 1)
print("Invert operator value 2:", c)

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Output: 

Minus operator value 1: -2.202
Minus operator value 2: 2.202
Plus operator value 1: 2.202
Plus operator value 2: -2.202
Invert operator value 1: -3
Invert operator value 2: 1

Example 2: Addition Operator.

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a = 4
b = -5
  
# This + operator performs 
# addition of two operands 
# or numbers
d = a + b
print("Addition value 1:", d)
  
a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
b = [6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
d = []
for j in range(len(a)):
    d.append(a[j] + b[j])
  
print("Addition value 2:", d)

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Output: 

Addition value 1: -1
Addition value 2: [7, 9, 11, 13, 15]

Example 3: Subtraction Operator.

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a = 4
b = -5
  
# This - operator performs 
# substraction of two operands 
# or numbers
d = a - b
print("Substraction value 1:",d)
  
a = [ 1 ,4,5
b = [1, 2, 3]
print("Subtraction values:")
for i in range(len(a)) :
  print(a[i] - b[i])

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Output: 

Substraction value 1: 9
Subtraction values:
0
2
2

Example 4: Multiplication Operator.

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a = 4
b = -5
c = 5.02
  
# This * operator performs 
# Multiplication of two 
# operands or numbers
d = a * b
print("Muliplication value 1:", d)
  
d = a * c
print("Muliplication value 2:", d)

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Output:



Muliplication value 1: -20
Muliplication value 2: 20.0

Example 5: Division Operator.

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a = 20
b = -5
c = 5.02
  
# This '/' operator performs 
# Division of two operands 
# or numbers
d = a / b
print("Division value 1:", d)
  
d = a / c
print("Division value 2:", d)

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Output:

Division value 1: -4.0
Division value 2: 3.9840637450199208

Example 6: Floor Division Operator.

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a = 20
b = -5
c = 5.02
  
# This // operator performs 
# Floor Division of two 
# operands or numbers
d = a // b
print("Floor Division value 1:", d)
  
d = a // c
print("Floor Division value 2:", d)

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Output:

Floor Division value 1: -4
Floor Division value 2: 3.0

Example 7: Exponential Operator.

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a = 5
b = 3
c = -3
  
# This ** operator performs 
# Exponential operation of two 
# operands or numbers
d = a ** b
print("Exponent value 1:", d)
  
d = a ** c
print("Exponent value 2:", d)

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Output:

Exponent value 1: 125
Exponent value 2: 0.008

Example 8: Modulo Operator.

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a = 12  
b = 5
c = 3
  
# This % operator performs Modulous 
# of two operands or numbers and 
# return the remainder
d = a % b   
print("Modulous value 1:", d)
  
d = c % b
print("Modulous value 2:", d)

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Output:

Modulous value 1: 2
Modulous value 2: 3

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