The world has changed to a mobile-first era but even today, none of the applications could emerge as effective as the web-based apps. Surfacing on top of this is the prevalence of progressive web apps that perform functions identical to mobile apps. So, it’s pretty clear that web apps are going to stay and for long. What makes these web applications worth investing is the use of high-end scalable technologies for the development or in simpler words, using top-notch quality technology stack.
No wonder, companies spend considerable time choosing the right technology stack for the development of web applications. It is this technology stack that determines the overall functionality of the applications, its interface, and potential features.
Additionally, choosing the most appropriate technology stack can leverage your application’s market reach and loop towards success. Likewise, using a poor technology stack might doom the entire project to failure. So, you see how important it is to have an in-depth review of the web development stack you are about to use for your project.
Though I might have till now convinced you of the importance of a web development stack and to adhere to the market standards while making a choice, you might still be boggling around what exactly is this technology stack?
Web Development Stack
When it comes to developing a web application, it’s not just about integrating an idea and giving it a visual appearance. It is far more than a non-technical individual could ever imagine.
Web Development has two faces, one being the front-end development and the other being the back end. Or in simple words, the client-side and the server-side. The client-side is viewed by the user and is the front end whereas the server-side has a database application, an application that connects the client request to the database and the server itself.
So, when an application needs to be developed, developers need to have considerable knowledge on both the ends along with the technologies to be used when deploying each.
For Client-Side: The commonly used client-side technologies consist of
- HTML & CSS: HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. It is used to design the front end portion of web pages using markup language. HTML is the combination of Hypertext and Markup language. Hypertext defines the link between the web pages. The markup language is used to define the text documentation within tag which defines the structure of web pages.
Cascading Style Sheets, fondly referred to as CSS, is a simply designed language intended to simplify the process of making web pages presentable. CSS allows you to apply styles to web pages. More importantly, CSS enables you to do this independent of the HTML that makes up each web page.
For Server-Side: The commonly used server-side technologies consist of
- Programming languages:
- Ruby: Ruby is a dynamic, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language. Ruby is a pure Object-Oriented language developed by Yukihiro Matsumoto. Everything in Ruby is an object except the blocks but there are replacements too for it i.e procs and lambda.
- Python: Python is a programming language that lets you work quickly and integrate systems more efficiently. There so many python frameworks like Django, Flask. Pylons etc.
- C++: It is a general-purpose programming language and widely used nowadays for competitive programming. It is also used as a backend language.
- PHP: PHP is a server-side scripting language designed specifically for web development. Since, PHP code executed on server side so it is called server side scripting language. laravel framework is the best in my opinion for PHP.
- Java: Java is one of the most popular and widely used programming language and platform. It is highly scalable. Java components are easily available.
- Scala: Scala is a general-purpose, high-level, multi-paradigm programming language. It is a pure object-oriented programming language which also provides support to the functional programming approach.
- Oracle: Oracle database is the collection of data that is treated as a unit. The purpose of this database is to store and retrieve information related to the query. It is a database server and used to manages information.
- SQL: Structured Query Language is a standard Database language which is used to create, maintain and retrieve the relational database.
- PostgreSQL: It is a powerful, open source object-relational database system with over 30 years of active development that has earned it a strong reputation for reliability, feature robustness, and performance.
- MongoDB: MongoDB, the most popular NoSQL database, is an open source document-oriented database. The term ‘NoSQL’ means ‘non-relational’. It means that MongoDB isn’t based on the table-like relational database structure but provides an altogether different mechanism for storage and retrieval of data.
- Nginx: It s an HTTP and reverse proxy server, a mail proxy server, and a generic TCP/UDP proxy server.
- Apache: It provides a high-level of abstraction for processing over the MapReduce. It provides a high-level scripting language, known as Pig Latin which is used to develop the data analysis codes. First, to process the data which is stored in the HDFS, the programmers will write the scripts using the Pig Latin Language.
Tips to choose a web tech stack So, now you know what web development is, why do you need it and what are the available web development stack. What’s next!? Knowing is not enough, you need to have a clear image on how to choose the right web development stack for your web application.
- Define Your Project Requirements: The project size and corresponding complexity are some of the most important aspects while choosing a tech stack. For smaller projects, you can go with Node.js Or python. Mid-sized projects have greater requirements and so you need to expand your stack, picking up technologies that map project needs. And similarly, for larger projects, it is necessary that you analyze each aspect and then deploy the right technology.
- Development Time: In case you want the project to be developed in the minimal possible time, choosing ready-made solutions or frameworks that enable easy integration would cut down the fleet to market. A combination of technologies that form the MEAN stack is one of the most ideal stacks as it reduces the overall development time by third party integrations and this speeds up the entire process.
- Scalability: For projects that necessitate upscaling, it becomes imperative to add technologies that have a future scope. Whether it is scaling upward or sideways, the choice of technology determines the potential of scalability.
- Development Cost:While developing a project, you also need to consider your team, their skills, and your area of expertise. Choosing a stack that your developers aren’t experienced in, would doom the need to hire third-party developers. This might cost high in your pocket. Hence, before you make a decision on the web development stack, sit with your team, know what they consider appropriate and then end up on a sound decision.
Tech stack of famous projects:
We would not suggest simply copying a project’s tech stack but having an idea on the development stack of some of the famous projects might help you determine yours. Have a run through a few of the best applications with their successful technology stack.
Social Media Network – Facebook or Instagram:
|Cassandra||Ruby on Rails||Relay|
Collaboration Tools – Hive or Slack:
|Programming Language||Database||Frameworks||Web Servers|
|Objective-C||MySQL||CakePHP||Apache HTTP Server|
Conclusion: According to a survey, Ruby on rails is one of the best technologies to invest in for web development and also the highest-paid job. However, this does not make you liable to go with the same. You can build an excellent web application taking into consideration all the above-stated tech stacks. Remember, you need to find not the best but the most appropriate, one that fits in your requirements effectively.
For the details of What is full-stack development?
- How to choose Web Hosting Server and Web Domain ?
- 10 Web Development and Web Design Facts That You Should Know
- JHipster (Java Hipster) - A Full Stack Web Development Platform for the Modern Developer
- Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 with their difference
- Begin Web Development with a Head Start
- My minified journey with Web Development!
- Introduction to Web Development and the Holy Trinity of it
- Two most misunderstood terms GET and POST in web development
- What is the difference between Front-End and Back-End Web Development?
- Best Books to Learn Front-End Web Development
- Best Books to Learn Back-End Web Development
- What is API? How it is useful in Web Development ?
- 13 Things You Should Know Before You Enter In Web Development
- Difference Between Data Science and Web Development
- 7 Tips For Performances Optimization in Web Development
- Phases of Web Development
- How to Manage Web Development Projects?
- The Future Of Web Development
- How to Setup Browsersync for Web Development in Ubuntu?
If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to firstname.lastname@example.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.
Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below.