How to check the execution time of Python script ?
In this article, we will discuss how to check the execution time of a Python script.
There are many Python modules like time, timeit and datetime module in Python which can store the time at which a particular section of the program is being executed. By manipulating or getting the difference between times of beginning and ending at which a particular section is being executed, we can calculate the time it took to execute the section.
The following methods can be used to compute time difference:
- Python time module provides various time-related functions. This module comes under Python’s standard utility modules. time.time() method of the Time module is used to get the time in seconds since epoch. The handling of leap seconds is platform-dependent.
- Python datetime module defines a function that can be primarily used to get the current time and date. now() function Return the current local date and time, which is defined under the datetime module.
- Python timeit module runs your snippet of code n number of times (the default value is, 1000000) so that you get the statistically most relevant measurement of code execution time.
Using the time module check the execution time of Python
Example 1: Measuring time taken for a code segment by recording start and end times
Computing the time using the time module and time.time() function. We have computed the time of the above program, which came out of the order 10^-3. We can check for the time by increasing the number of computations using the same algorithms.
The time of execution of above program is : 0.77056884765625 ms
Example 2: Measuring time taken for a code segment by adding up the time required per iteration
Checking times for execution of the program for different numbers of computations. We see a general trend in the increase in time of computation for an increase in the number of execution. However, it may not show any linear trend or fixed increments.
Iteration: 100 Time taken: 0.105ms Iteration: 200 Time taken: 0.191ms Iteration: 300 Time taken: 0.291ms Iteration: 400 Time taken: 0.398ms Iteration: 500 Time taken: 0.504ms Iteration: 600 Time taken: 0.613ms Iteration: 700 Time taken: 0.791ms ... Iteration: 5400 Time taken: 6.504ms Iteration: 5500 Time taken: 6.630ms
Explanation: Here we have truncated the output for representation purpose. But if we compare the iterations from 100 to 700 they are less than 1ms. But towards the end of the loop, each iteration taking ~7ms. Thus, there is an increase in time taken as the number of iterations have increased. This is generally because, the inner loop iterate more number of time depending on each outer iteration.
Using the DateTime module check the execution time
Using the datetime module in Python and datetime.now() function to record timestamp of start and end instance and finding the difference to get the code execution time.
The time of execution of above program is : 0.766ms
Using timeit module check the execution time
This would give us the execution time of any program. This module provides a simple way to find the execution time of small bits of Python code. It provides the timeit() method to do the same. The module function timeit.timeit(stmt, setup, timer, number) accepts four arguments:
- stmt which is the statement you want to measure; it defaults to ‘pass’.
- setup, which is the code that you run before running the stmt; it defaults to ‘pass’. We generally use this to import the required modules for our code.
- timer, which is a timeit.Timer object; usually has a sensible default value, so you don’t have to worry about it.
- The number, which is the number of executions you’d like to run the stmt.
Example 1: Using timeit inside Python code snippet to measure execution time
The time of execution of above program is : 71.161ms
Example 2: Using timeit from command line to measure execution time
We can measure time taken by simple code statements without the need to write new Python files, using timeit CLI interface.
timeit supports various command line inputs, Here we will note a few of the mos common arguments:
- -s [–setup]: Setup code to run before running the code statement.
- -n [–number]: Number of times to execute the statement.
- –p [–process]: Measure the process time of the code execution, instead of the wall-clock time.
- Statement: The code statements to test the execution time, taken as a positional argument.
timeit CLI statement:
python -m timeit -s "import random" "l = [x**9 for x in range(random.randint(1000, 1500))]"
500 loops, best of 5: 503 usec per loop