Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) and Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)

Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) is a CISCO proprietary protocol used to provide redundancy in a network. Only one router is the active router while others will be in standby state i.e the standby router will be responsible for forwarding the traffic when the active router fails.

Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) is an open standard protocol used to provide redundancy in a network. VRRP is a network layer protocol. It uses the concept of Master and back up router i.e when the master router goes down, one of the backup routers will take up the responsibilities of the master router, that is the backup router will be responsible for forwarding the traffic until the master router comes again.

Similarities –

HSRP is a Cisco proprietary protocol. VRRP is an open standard protocol.
HSRP is an application layer protocol. VRRP is a network layer protocol
HSRP version 1 uses UDP port number 1985 and multicast address and version 2 uses UDP port 1985 and as multicast address. VRRP uses multicast address and protocol number 112
preempt has to be enabled manually. Preempt is by default enabled in VRRP.
The hello message time and the dead time in HSRP is 3 seconds and 10 seconds respectively. In VRRP, instead of hello timer and dead timer, there is a concept of Master advertisement interval (1 second by default) and master down interval (3.069 by default).
The MAC address used in HSRP is 0000.00 07.ac0a
Where 0a(here group number assumed 10)represents the HSRP group number in hexadecimal.
The MAC address used in VRRP is 0000.5e00.01xx. Here, xx represents the VRRP group number.
group number range allowed on version 1 is 0-255 and version 2 is 0-4095 range allowed is from 0-255

Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. Get hold of all the important CS Theory concepts for SDE interviews with the CS Theory Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready.

Check out this Author's contributed articles.

If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using or mail your article to See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below.

Article Tags :
Practice Tags :