Histograms in R language

A histogram contains rectangular area to display the statistical information which is proportional to the frequency of a variable and its width in successive numerical intervals. A graphical representation that manages a group of data points into different specified ranges. It has a special feature which shows no gaps between the bars and similar to a vertical bar graph.

R creates histogram using hist() function.

Syntax:

hist(v, main, xlab, xlim, ylim, breaks, col, border)

Parameters:

  • v: This parameter contains numerical values used in histogram.
  • main: This parameter main is the title of the chart.
  • col: This parameter is used to set color of the bars.
  • xlab: This parameter is the label for horizontal axis.
  • border: This parameter is used to set border color of each bar.
  • xlim: This parameter is used for plotting values of x-axis.
  • ylim: This parameter is used for plotting values of y-axis.
  • breaks: This parameter is used as width of each bar.

Creating a simple Histogram

Approach: In order to create Histogram chart:



  1. Creating a simple histogram chart by using the above parameter.
  2. This vector v is plot using hist().

Example:

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# Create data for the graph.
v <-  c(19, 23, 11, 5, 16, 21, 32, 14, 19, 27, 39)
  
# Create the histogram.
hist(v, xlab = "No.of Articles ", col = "green", border = "black")

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Output:

Range of X and Y values

Approach: To describe the range of values we need to do following steps:

  1. We can use the xlim and ylim parameter in X-axis and Y-axis.
  2. Take all parameters which are required to make histogram chart.

Example

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# Create data for the graph.
v <- c(19, 23, 11, 5, 16, 21, 32, 14, 19, 27, 39)
   
   
# Create the histogram.
hist(v, xlab = "No.of Articles", col = "green"
     border = "black", xlim = c(0, 50),
     ylim = c(0, 5), breaks = 5)     

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Output:

Using histogram return values for labels using text()

Approach: To create histogram return value chart:

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# Creating data for the graph.  
v <-  c(19, 23, 11, 5, 16, 21, 32, 14, 19, 27, 39, 120, 40, 70, 90)  
  
# Creating the histogram.  
m<-hist(v, xlab = "Weight", ylab ="Frequency"
        col = "darkmagenta", border = "pink", breaks = 5)  
  
# Setting labels  
text(m$mids, m$counts, labels = m$counts, adj = c(0.5, -0.5))      

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Output: When we execute the above code, it shows the following result-

Histogram using non-uniform width

Approach: creating different width histogram chart:

  1. By using above parameters, we created histogram using non-uniform width.

Example

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# Creating data for the graph.  
v <-  c(19, 23, 11, 5, 16, 21, 32, 14, 19, 27, 39, 120, 40, 70, 90
     
# Creating the histogram.  
hist(v, xlab = "Weight", ylab ="Frequency", xlim = c(50, 100),
     col = "darkmagenta", border = "pink"
     breaks = c(5, 55, 60, 70, 75, 80, 100, 140))   

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Output:




My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up


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