# Histograms in R language

A histogram contains rectangular area to display the statistical information which is proportional to the frequency of a variable and its width in successive numerical intervals. A graphical representation that manages a group of data points into different specified ranges. It has a special feature which shows no gaps between the bars and similar to a vertical bar graph.

R creates histogram using hist() function.

Syntax:

`hist(v, main, xlab, xlim, ylim, breaks, col, border)`

Parameters:

• v: This parameter contains numerical values used in histogram.
• main: This parameter main is the title of the chart.
• col: This parameter is used to set color of the bars.
• xlab: This parameter is the label for horizontal axis.
• border: This parameter is used to set border color of each bar.
• xlim: This parameter is used for plotting values of x-axis.
• ylim: This parameter is used for plotting values of y-axis.
• breaks: This parameter is used as width of each bar.

### Creating a simple Histogram

Approach: In order to create Histogram chart:

1. Creating a simple histogram chart by using the above parameter.
2. This vector v is plot using hist().

Example:

 `# Create data for the graph. ` `v <``-`  `c(``19``, ``23``, ``11``, ``5``, ``16``, ``21``, ``32``, ``14``, ``19``, ``27``, ``39``) ` ` `  `# Create the histogram. ` `hist(v, xlab ``=` `"No.of Articles "``, col ``=` `"green"``, border ``=` `"black"``) `

Output: ### Range of X and Y values

Approach: To describe the range of values we need to do following steps:

1. We can use the xlim and ylim parameter in X-axis and Y-axis.
2. Take all parameters which are required to make histogram chart.

Example

 `# Create data for the graph. ` `v <``-` `c(``19``, ``23``, ``11``, ``5``, ``16``, ``21``, ``32``, ``14``, ``19``, ``27``, ``39``) ` `  `  `  `  `# Create the histogram. ` `hist(v, xlab ``=` `"No.of Articles"``, col ``=` `"green"``,  ` `     ``border ``=` `"black"``, xlim ``=` `c(``0``, ``50``), ` `     ``ylim ``=` `c(``0``, ``5``), breaks ``=` `5``)      `

Output: ### Using histogram return values for labels using text()

Approach: To create histogram return value chart:

 `# Creating data for the graph.   ` `v <``-`  `c(``19``, ``23``, ``11``, ``5``, ``16``, ``21``, ``32``, ``14``, ``19``, ``27``, ``39``, ``120``, ``40``, ``70``, ``90``)   ` ` `  `# Creating the histogram.   ` `m<``-``hist(v, xlab ``=` `"Weight"``, ylab ``=``"Frequency"``,  ` `        ``col ``=` `"darkmagenta"``, border ``=` `"pink"``, breaks ``=` `5``)   ` ` `  `# Setting labels   ` `text(m\$mids, m\$counts, labels ``=` `m\$counts, adj ``=` `c(``0.5``, ``-``0.5``))       `

Output: When we execute the above code, it shows the following result- ### Histogram using non-uniform width

Approach: creating different width histogram chart:

1. By using above parameters, we created histogram using non-uniform width.

Example

 `# Creating data for the graph.   ` `v <``-`  `c(``19``, ``23``, ``11``, ``5``, ``16``, ``21``, ``32``, ``14``, ``19``, ``27``, ``39``, ``120``, ``40``, ``70``, ``90``)  ` `    `  `# Creating the histogram.   ` `hist(v, xlab ``=` `"Weight"``, ylab ``=``"Frequency"``, xlim ``=` `c(``50``, ``100``), ` `     ``col ``=` `"darkmagenta"``, border ``=` `"pink"``,  ` `     ``breaks ``=` `c(``5``, ``55``, ``60``, ``70``, ``75``, ``80``, ``100``, ``140``))    `

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