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Heterogeneous Data in R
• Last Updated : 24 Feb, 2021

Data structures are a logical way or representing as per requirement. They further help depict this logical view physically in computer memory. In the R language, data structures can be classified into two groups, namely homogeneous and heterogeneous.

• Homogeneous Data Structures: This type can only store a single type of data inside them(integer, character, etc.),
• Heterogeneous Data Structures: This type can store more than one type of data at the same time.

## Heterogeneous Data Structures

R supports two ways of representing heterogeneous data, namely lists and dataframe. Both structures are discussed in detail below:

1) Lists :

• Lists are single-dimensional heterogeneous data types.
• A list can represent more than one data type at a time.
• We can simply use the list() function to create a list.
• Lists are similar to vectors, however, vectors are homogeneous and lists are heterogeneous.
• Another interesting property of lists is that we can store lists inside other lists(like simple recursion). Due to this reason, Lists are also referred to as “Recursive Vectors“.

Example:

## R

 `list_ex = ``list``(Ch=``"R language"``, numbers = 5:1, fl=``FALSE``)`` ` `print``(list_ex)`

Output:

\$Ch

[1] “R language”

\$numbers

[1]  5 4 3 2 1

\$fl

[1] FALSE

Example: Recursive vectors

## R

 `list_ex2<-``list``(``list``(1,``"R language"``,``FALSE``), ``list``(``"Python"``,2,``"Language"``),``               ``list``(``"Hello"``,``FALSE``,``"World"``))`` ` `str``(list_ex2)`

Output:

List of 3

\$ :List of 3

..\$ : num 1

..\$ : chr “R language”

..\$ : logi FALSE

\$ :List of 3

..\$ : chr “Python”

..\$ : num 2

..\$ : chr “Language”

\$ :List of 3

..\$ : chr “Hello”

..\$ : logi FALSE

..\$ : chr “World”

• In the R language, a data frame is a two-dimensional heterogeneous table-like structure
• They are simply lists of vectors that have equal lengths.
• Data frames make data analysis easier when they are used systematically,
• In the R language, we use the data.frames() function to create data frames.
• A data frame in R must follow the following rules :
• A data frame must have column names and each column must contain equal amount of items,
• Each row in a data frame must have a unique name,
• Each entry in a column must have same data type,
• Different columns can have same or different data types.

Example:

## R

 `employee_id <- ``c``(1:4)`` ` `employee_name <- ``c``(``"Abdul"``, ``"Anshul"``, ``"Vishal"``, ``"Riya"``)``employee_salary <- ``c``(``"45000"``, ``"90000"``, ``"25000"``, ``"75000"``)``employee_designation <- ``c``(``"Software Engineer"``, ``"Senior Manager"``, ``"Intern"``,``"Manager"``)`` ` `employee.data <- ``data.frame``(employee_id , employee_name, employee_salary,``                            ``employee_designation)`` ` `employee.data`

Output:

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