The **Haversine** formula calculates the shortest distance between two points on a sphere using their latitudes and longitudes measured along the surface. It is important for use in navigation. The haversine can be expressed in trignometric function as:

The haversine of the central angle (which is d/r) is calculated by the following formula:

where r is the radius of earth(6371 km), d is the distance between two points, is latitude of the two points and is longitude of the two points respectively.

Solving d by applying the inverse haversine or by using the inverse sine function, we get:

or

The distance between Big Ben in London (51.5007° N, 0.1246° W) and The Statue of Liberty in

New York (40.6892° N, 74.0445° W) is 5574.8 km. This is not the exact measurement because the

formula assumes that the Earth is a perfect sphere when in fact it is an oblate spheroid.

Below is the implementation of the above formulae:

## C++

`// C++ program for the haversine formula` `// C++ program for the` `// haversine formula` `#include <iostream>` `#include <cmath>` `using` `namespace` `std;` ` ` `static` `double` `haversine(` `double` `lat1, ` `double` `lon1,` ` ` `double` `lat2, ` `double` `lon2)` ` ` `{` ` ` `// distance between latitudes` ` ` `// and longitudes` ` ` `double` `dLat = (lat2 - lat1) *` ` ` `M_PI / 180.0;` ` ` `double` `dLon = (lon2 - lon1) * ` ` ` `M_PI / 180.0;` ` ` ` ` `// convert to radians` ` ` `lat1 = (lat1) * M_PI / 180.0;` ` ` `lat2 = (lat2) * M_PI / 180.0;` ` ` ` ` `// apply formulae` ` ` `double` `a = ` `pow` `(` `sin` `(dLat / 2), 2) + ` ` ` `pow` `(` `sin` `(dLon / 2), 2) * ` ` ` `cos` `(lat1) * ` `cos` `(lat2);` ` ` `double` `rad = 6371;` ` ` `double` `c = 2 * ` `asin` `(` `sqrt` `(a));` ` ` `return` `rad * c;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Driver code` `int` `main()` `{` ` ` `double` `lat1 = 51.5007;` ` ` `double` `lon1 = 0.1246;` ` ` `double` `lat2 = 40.6892;` ` ` `double` `lon2 = 74.0445;` ` ` ` ` `cout << haversine(lat1, lon1,` ` ` `lat2, lon2) << ` `" K.M."` `;` ` ` `return` `0;` `}` ` ` `// This code is contributed` `// by Mahadev.` |

## Java

`// Java program for the haversine formula` `public` `class` `Haversine {` ` ` ` ` `static` `double` `haversine(` `double` `lat1, ` `double` `lon1,` ` ` `double` `lat2, ` `double` `lon2)` ` ` `{` ` ` `// distance between latitudes and longitudes` ` ` `double` `dLat = Math.toRadians(lat2 - lat1);` ` ` `double` `dLon = Math.toRadians(lon2 - lon1);` ` ` ` ` `// convert to radians` ` ` `lat1 = Math.toRadians(lat1);` ` ` `lat2 = Math.toRadians(lat2);` ` ` ` ` `// apply formulae` ` ` `double` `a = Math.pow(Math.sin(dLat / ` `2` `), ` `2` `) + ` ` ` `Math.pow(Math.sin(dLon / ` `2` `), ` `2` `) * ` ` ` `Math.cos(lat1) * ` ` ` `Math.cos(lat2);` ` ` `double` `rad = ` `6371` `;` ` ` `double` `c = ` `2` `* Math.asin(Math.sqrt(a));` ` ` `return` `rad * c;` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// Driver Code` ` ` `public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)` ` ` `{` ` ` `double` `lat1 = ` `51.5007` `;` ` ` `double` `lon1 = ` `0.1246` `;` ` ` `double` `lat2 = ` `40.6892` `;` ` ` `double` `lon2 = ` `74.0445` `;` ` ` `System.out.println(haversine(lat1, lon1, lat2, lon2) + ` `" K.M."` `);` ` ` `}` `}` |

## Python 3

`# Python 3 program for the ` `# haversine formula` `import` `math` ` ` `# Python 3 program for the` `# haversine formula` `def` `haversine(lat1, lon1, lat2, lon2):` ` ` ` ` `# distance between latitudes` ` ` `# and longitudes` ` ` `dLat ` `=` `(lat2 ` `-` `lat1) ` `*` `math.pi ` `/` `180.0` ` ` `dLon ` `=` `(lon2 ` `-` `lon1) ` `*` `math.pi ` `/` `180.0` ` ` ` ` `# convert to radians` ` ` `lat1 ` `=` `(lat1) ` `*` `math.pi ` `/` `180.0` ` ` `lat2 ` `=` `(lat2) ` `*` `math.pi ` `/` `180.0` ` ` ` ` `# apply formulae` ` ` `a ` `=` `(` `pow` `(math.sin(dLat ` `/` `2` `), ` `2` `) ` `+` ` ` `pow` `(math.sin(dLon ` `/` `2` `), ` `2` `) ` `*` ` ` `math.cos(lat1) ` `*` `math.cos(lat2));` ` ` `rad ` `=` `6371` ` ` `c ` `=` `2` `*` `math.asin(math.sqrt(a))` ` ` `return` `rad ` `*` `c` ` ` `# Driver code` `if` `__name__ ` `=` `=` `"__main__"` `:` ` ` `lat1 ` `=` `51.5007` ` ` `lon1 ` `=` `0.1246` ` ` `lat2 ` `=` `40.6892` ` ` `lon2 ` `=` `74.0445` ` ` ` ` `print` `(haversine(lat1, lon1,lat2, lon2), ` `"K.M."` `)` ` ` `# This code is contributed ` `# by ChitraNayal` |

## C#

`// C# program for the haversine formula` `using` `System;` `class` `GFG` `{` ` ` `static` `double` `haversine(` `double` `lat1, ` `double` `lon1,` ` ` `double` `lat2, ` `double` `lon2)` `{` ` ` `// distance between latitudes and longitudes` ` ` `double` `dLat = (Math.PI / 180) * (lat2 - lat1);` ` ` `double` `dLon = (Math.PI / 180) * (lon2 - lon1);` ` ` ` ` `// convert to radians` ` ` `lat1 = (Math.PI / 180) * (lat1);` ` ` `lat2 = (Math.PI / 180) * (lat2);` ` ` ` ` `// apply formulae` ` ` `double` `a = Math.Pow(Math.Sin(dLat / 2), 2) + ` ` ` `Math.Pow(Math.Sin(dLon / 2), 2) * ` ` ` `Math.Cos(lat1) * Math.Cos(lat2);` ` ` `double` `rad = 6371;` ` ` `double` `c = 2 * Math.Asin(Math.Sqrt(a));` ` ` `return` `rad * c;` `}` ` ` `// Driver Code` `public` `static` `void` `Main()` `{` ` ` `double` `lat1 = 51.5007;` ` ` `double` `lon1 = 0.1246;` ` ` `double` `lat2 = 40.6892;` ` ` `double` `lon2 = 74.0445;` ` ` `Console.WriteLine(haversine(lat1, lon1, ` ` ` `lat2, lon2) + ` `" K.M."` `);` `}` `}` ` ` `// This code is contributed ` `// by Akanksha Rai(Abby_akku)` |

## PHP

`<?php` `// PHP program for the` `// haversine formula` ` ` `function` `haversine(` `$lat1` `, ` `$lon1` `,` ` ` `$lat2` `, ` `$lon2` `)` `{` ` ` `// distance between latitudes` ` ` `// and longitudes` ` ` `$dLat` `= (` `$lat2` `- ` `$lat1` `) *` ` ` `M_PI / 180.0;` ` ` `$dLon` `= (` `$lon2` `- ` `$lon1` `) * ` ` ` `M_PI / 180.0;` ` ` ` ` `// convert to radians` ` ` `$lat1` `= (` `$lat1` `) * M_PI / 180.0;` ` ` `$lat2` `= (` `$lat2` `) * M_PI / 180.0;` ` ` ` ` `// apply formulae` ` ` `$a` `= pow(sin(` `$dLat` `/ 2), 2) + ` ` ` `pow(sin(` `$dLon` `/ 2), 2) * ` ` ` `cos` `(` `$lat1` `) * ` `cos` `(` `$lat2` `);` ` ` `$rad` `= 6371;` ` ` `$c` `= 2 * asin(sqrt(` `$a` `));` ` ` `return` `$rad` `* ` `$c` `;` `}` ` ` `// Driver code` `$lat1` `= 51.5007;` `$lon1` `= 0.1246;` `$lat2` `= 40.6892;` `$lon2` `= 74.0445;` ` ` `echo` `haversine(` `$lat1` `, ` `$lon1` `,` ` ` `$lat2` `, ` `$lon2` `) . ` ` ` `" K.M."` `;` ` ` `// This code is contributed` `// by Akanksha Rai(Abby_akku)` `?>` |

**Output:**

5574.840456848555 K.M.

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