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Get K-th letter of the decoded string formed by repeating substrings

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  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 21 May, 2021
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Given a string S containing letter and digit and an integer K where, 2\leq S.length() \leq 100  and 1\leq K \leq 10^{9}  . The task is to return the K-th letter of the new string S’.
The new string S’ is formed from old string S by following steps: 
1. If the character read is a letter, that letter is added at end of S’
2. If the character read is a digit, then entire string S’ repeatedly written d-1 more times in total.
Note: The new string is guaranteed to have less than 2^63 letters.
Examples:
 

Input: S = “geeks2for2”, K = 15 
Output: “e” 
Explanation: The new string S’ = “geeksgeeksforgeeksgeeksfor”. The 15th letter is “e”.
Input: S = “a2345”, K = 100 
Output: “a” 
Explanation: The new string S’=”a” repeated 120 times. The 100th letter is “a”.

 

Let us take a new string like S’ = “geeksgeeksgeeksgeeksgeeks” and an index K = 22, then the answer at K = 22 is the same if K = 2
In general, when a string is equal to some word with size length repeated some number of times (such as geeks with size = 5 repeated 5 times), then the answer will be same for the index K as it is for the index K % size.
Using this insight and working backwards, we keep track of the size of the new string S’. Whenever the string S’ would equal some word repeated d times, we can reduce K to K % (lengthof(word)).
We first find the length of the new string S’. After, this we’ll work backwards, keeping track of size: the length of the new string after parsing symbols S[0], S[1], …, S[i].
If we see a digit S[i], it means the size of the new string after parsing S[0], S[1], …, S[i-1] will be (size / toInteger(S[i])). Otherwise, it will be size – 1.
Below is the implementation of above approach: 
 

C++




// CPP implementation of above approach
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Function to return the K-th letter from new String.
string K_thletter(string S, int K)
{
 
    int N = S.size();
    long size = 0;
 
    // finding size = length of new string S'
    for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i) {
        if (isdigit(S[i]))
            size = size * (S[i] - '0');
        else
            size += 1;
    }
 
    // get the K-th letter
    for (int i = N - 1; i >= 0; --i) {
        K %= size;
 
        if (K == 0 && isalpha(S[i]))
            return (string) "" + S[i];
 
        if (isdigit(S[i]))
            size = size / (S[i] - '0');
        else
            size -= 1;
    }
}
 
// Driver program
int main()
{
    string S = "geeks2for2";
    int K = 15;
 
    cout << K_thletter(S, K);
 
    return 0;
}
 
// This code is written by Sanjit_Prasad

Java




// Java implementation of above approach
class GFG
{
    // Function to return the K-th letter from new String.
    static String K_thletter(String S, int K)
    {
        int N = S.length();
        long size = 0;
 
        // finding size = length of new string S'
        for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i)
        {
            if (Character.isDigit(S.charAt(i)))
            {
                size = size * (S.charAt(i) - '0');
            }
            else
            {
                size += 1;
            }
        }
 
        // get the K-th letter
        for (int i = N - 1; i >= 0; --i)
        {
            K %= size;
            if (K == 0 && Character.isAlphabetic(S.charAt(i)))
            {
                return (String) "" + S.charAt(i);
            }
 
            if (Character.isDigit(S.charAt(i)))
            {
                size = size / (S.charAt(i) - '0');
            }
            else
            {
                size -= 1;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }
 
    // Driver program
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        String S = "geeks2for2";
        int K = 15;
        System.out.println(K_thletter(S, K));
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by Rajput-Ji

Python3




# Python3 implementation of above approach
 
# Function to return the K-th letter
# from new String.
def K_thletter(S, K):
 
    N = len(S)
    size = 0
 
    # finding size = length of new string S'
    for i in range(0, N):
        if S[i].isdigit():
            size = size * int(S[i])
        else:
            size += 1
 
    # get the K-th letter
    for i in range(N - 1, -1, -1):
        K %= size
 
        if K == 0 and S[i].isalpha():
            return S[i]
 
        if S[i].isdigit():
            size = size // int(S[i])
        else:
            size -= 1
 
# Driver Code
if __name__ == "__main__":
 
    S = "geeks2for2"
    K = 15
 
    print(K_thletter(S, K))
 
# This code is contributed
# by Rituraj Jain

C#




// C# implementation of the above approach
using System;    
     
class GFG
{
    // Function to return the K-th letter from new String.
    static String K_thletter(String S, int K)
    {
        int N = S.Length;
        long size = 0;
 
        // finding size = length of new string S'
        for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i)
        {
            if (char.IsDigit(S[i]))
            {
                size = size * (S[i] - '0');
            }
            else
            {
                size += 1;
            }
        }
 
        // get the K-th letter
        for (int i = N - 1; i >= 0; --i)
        {
            K %= (int)size;
            if (K == 0 && char.IsLetter(S[i]))
            {
                return (String) "" + S[i];
            }
 
            if (char.IsDigit(S[i]))
            {
                size = size / (S[i] - '0');
            }
            else
            {
                size -= 1;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }
 
    // Driver code
    public static void Main(String[] args)
    {
        String S = "geeks2for2";
        int K = 15;
        Console.WriteLine(K_thletter(S, K));
    }
}
 
// This code has been contributed by 29AjayKumar

Javascript




<script>
 
// Javascript implementation of above approach
 
function isAlphaNumeric(str) {
  var code, i, len;
 
  for (i = 0, len = str.length; i < len; i++) {
    code = str.charCodeAt(i);
    if (!(code > 47 && code < 58) && // numeric (0-9)
        !(code > 64 && code < 91) && // upper alpha (A-Z)
        !(code > 96 && code < 123)) { // lower alpha (a-z)
      return false;
    }
  }
  return true;
};
 
// Function to return the K-th letter from new String.
function K_thletter(S, K)
{
 
    var N = S.length;
    var size = 0;
 
    // finding size = length of new string S'
    for (var i = 0; i < N; ++i) {
        if (Number.isInteger(parseInt(S[i])))
            size = size * (S[i].charCodeAt(0) - '0'.charCodeAt(0));
        else
            size += 1;
    }
 
    // get the K-th letter
    for (var i = N - 1; i >= 0; --i) {
        K %= size;
 
        if (K == 0 && isAlphaNumeric(S[i]))
            return  "" + S[i];
 
        if (Number.isInteger(parseInt(S[i])))
            size = size / (S[i].charCodeAt(0) - '0'.charCodeAt(0));
        else
            size -= 1;
    }
}
 
// Driver program
var S = "geeks2for2";
var K = 15;
 
document.write( K_thletter(S, K));
 
// This code is contributed by imporrtantly.
</script>

Output: 

e

Time Complexity: O(N), where N is the length of S.
 


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