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# Generate Factors with specified Levels in R Programming – gl() Function

• Last Updated : 16 Jun, 2020

`gl()` function in R Language is used to generate factors by specifying the pattern of their levels.

Syntax:
gl(x, k, length, labels, ordered)

Parameters:
x: Number of levels
k: Number of replications
length: Length of result
labels: Labels for the vector(optional)
ordered: Boolean value to order the levels

Example 1:

 `# R Program to generate factors`` ` `# Creating a factor``# using gl() function``x1 <``-` `gl(``2``, ``5``)`` ` `# gl() function with``# length specified``x2 <``-` `gl(``3``, ``4``, ``12``)`` ` `# Printing the factors``print``(x1)``print``(x2)`

Output:

```  1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
Levels: 1 2
 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3
Levels: 1 2 3
```

Example 2:

 `# R Program to generate factors`` ` `# gl() function with``# length and labels specified``x1 <``-` `gl(``3``, ``4``, ``12``, label ``=` `letters[``1``:``12``])`` ` `# gl() function with``# length, label and order specified``x2 <``-` `gl(``3``, ``4``, ``12``, label ``=` `letters[``1``:``12``], ordered ``=` `T)`` ` `# Printing the factors``print``(x1)``print``(x2)`

Output:

```  a a a a b b b b c c c c
Levels: a b c d e f g h i j k l
 a a a a b b b b c c c c
Levels: a < b < c < d < e < f < g < h < i < j < k < l
```

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