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GATE | GATE-CS-2017 (Set 1) | Question 36

  • Last Updated : 28 Jun, 2021

Consider a database that has the relation schemas EMP (EmpId, EmpName, DepId), and DEPT(DeptName, DeptId). Note that the DepId can be permitted to be NULL in the relation EMP. Consider the following queries on the database expressed in tuple relational calculus.

I. {t | ∃ u ∈ EMP (t[EMPName] = u[EmpName] ∧ ∀ v ∈ DEPT (t[DeptId] ≠ DeptId]))}

II. {t | ∃ u ∈ EMP (t[EMPName] = u[EmpName] ∧ ∃ v ∈ DEPT (t[DeptId] ≠ DeptId]))}

III. {t | ∃ u ∈ EMP (t[EMPName] = u[EmpName] ∧ ∃ v ∈ DEPT (t[DeptId] = DeptId]))}
(A) I and II only
(B) I and III only
(C) II and III only
(D) I, II, and III


Answer: (D)

Explanation: A SAFE EXPRESSION is one that is guaranteed to yield a finite number of tuples as its results. Otherwise, it is called UNSAFE

Given, DepId can be permitted to be NULL



I. {t | ∃ u ∈ EMP (t[EMPName] = u[EmpName] ∧ ∀ v ∈ DEPT (t[DeptId] ≠ DeptId]))} : Gives empnames who donot belong to any department

II. {t | ∃ u ∈ EMP (t[EMPName] = u[EmpName] ∧ ∃ v ∈ DEPT (t[DeptId] ≠ DeptId]))} : Gives empnames who donot belong to some department

III. {t | ∃ u ∈ EMP (t[EMPName] = u[EmpName] ∧ ∃ v ∈ DEPT (t[DeptId] = DeptId]))}: Gives empnames who donot belong to same department

All of these queries are giving some results which are finite and thus all are safe expressions.

Therefore, option D is correct.

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