# GATE CS Notes according to GATE 2021 syllabus

• Last Updated : 20 Jul, 2021

This page contains GATE CS Preparation Notes / Tutorials on Mathematics, Digital Logic, Computer Organization and Architecture, Programming and Data Structures, Algorithms, Theory of Computation, Compiler Design, Operating Systems, Database Management Systems (DBMS), and Computer Networks listed according to the GATE CS 2021 syllabus.

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GATE 2020 SyllabusLearnPracticeExternal Resources

Section 1: General Aptitude (GA)

1. Verbal Aptitude :
• Basic English grammar: tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verb-noun agreement, and other parts of speech
• Basic vocabulary: words, idioms, and phrases in context Reading and comprehension
• Narrative sequencing
2. Quantitative Aptitude :
• Data interpretation: data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2- and 3-dimensional plots, maps, and tables
• Numerical computation and estimation: ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series
• Mensuration and geometry
• Elementary statistics and probability
3. Analytical Aptitude :
• Logic: deduction and induction
• Analogy
• Numerical relations and reasoning
4. Spatial Aptitude :
• Transformation of shapes: translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping
Paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions
1. Numerical Ability :
2. Verbal Ability :
1. Numerical Ability :
2. Verbal Ability :

#### Section 2: Mathematics

1. Discrete Mathematics :
• Propositional and first order logic
• Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices. Monoids, Groups
• Combinatorics: counting, recurrence relations, generating functions
• Graphs: connectivity, matching, coloring
2. Linear Algebra :
• Matrices, determinants
• LU decomposition
• System of linear equations
• Eigenvalues and eigenvectors
3. Probability :
• Random variables
• Mean, median, mode and standard deviation
• Uniform, normal, exponential, Poisson and binomial distributions
• Conditional probability and Bayes theorem
4. Calculus :
• Limits, Continuity and Differentiability
• Maxima and Minima. Mean value theorem
• Integration

1. Discrete Mathematics :
2. Linear Algebra :
3. Probability :
4. Calculus :

Section 3: Algorithms

• Searching, sorting, hashing
• Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity
• Algorithm design techniques : greedy, dynamic programming and divide‐and‐conquer
• Graph traversals, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths

#### Algorithms :

Section 4: Programming and Data Structures

• Programming in C, Recursion
• Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs
1. Programming in C, Recursion :
2. Array, Stack, Queue :
4. Trees, Binary search trees, Binary heaps :
5. Graphs :
1. Programming in C, Recursion :
2. Array, Stack, Queue :
4. Trees, Binary search trees, Binary heaps :
5. Graphs :

Programming and Data Structures :

Section 5: Operating Systems

• Processes, System calls, threads, CPU scheduling
• Inter‐process communication, concurrency and synchronization, deadlock
• Memory management and virtual memory
• I/O scheduling, File systems
1. Processes, threads, CPU scheduling :
2. Inter‐process communication, concurrency and synchronization :
4. Main memory management :
5. Virtual memory :
6. File system and disk scheduling :

Operating Systems :

Section 6: Databases

• ER‐model, Relational model : relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL
• Integrity constraints, normal forms
• Transactions and concurrency control
• File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees)

1. ER‐model:
2. Relational model (relational algebra, tuple calculus):
3. Database design (integrity constraints, normal forms):
4. Query languages (SQL) :
5. Transactions and concurrency control:
6. File structures (sequential files, indexing, B and B+ trees):

Databases :

Section 7: Computer Networks

• Concept of layering: OSI and TCP/IP Protocol Stacks;
Basics of packet, circuit and virtual circuit-switching;
• Data link layer: framing, error detection, Medium Access Control, Ethernet bridging;
• Routing protocols: shortest path, flooding, distance vector and link state routing;
Fragmentation and IP addressing, IPv4, CIDR notation, Basics of IP support protocols (ARP, DHCP, ICMP), Network Address Translation (NAT);
• Transport layer: flow control and congestion control, UDP, TCP, sockets;
• Application layer protocols: DNS, SMTP, HTTP, FTP, Email.

Computer Networks :

Section 8: Computer Organization and Architecture

• Machine instructions and addressing modes
• ALU, data‐path and control unit
• Instruction pipelining, pipeline hazards
• Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storage
• I/O interface (Interrupt and DMA mode)

#### Computer Organization and Architecture :

Section 9: Theory of Computation

• Regular expressions and finite automata
• Context-free grammars and push-down automata
• Regular and context-free languages, pumping lemma
• Turing machines and undecidability

1. Regular expression, langauges, grammar and finite automata :
2. Context free langauges, grammar and push down automata :
3. Context Sensitive langauges :
• .
4. Turing machines and undecidability :

Theory of Computation :

Section 10: Compiler Design

• Lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation
• Runtime environments
• Intermediate code generation
• Local optimisation,
• Data flow analyses: constant propagation, liveness analysis, common subexpression elimination.
1. Introduction of Compiler :
2. Lexical analysis :
3. Parsing :
4. Syntax directed transalation :
5. Runtime environments :
• .
6. Intermediate code generation :

Compiler Design :

Section 11: Digital Logic

• Boolean algebra
• Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization
• Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point)