Geographic Information System (GIS) has come a long way since its inception, and there are several areas where future works can be done to further enhance its capabilities. Here are some of the potential areas for future work in GIS:
Integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI): The integration of AI can improve GIS’s ability to interpret and analyze data, automate processes, and provide intelligent decision-making capabilities.
Real-time data integration: The integration of real-time data streams can provide GIS with more up-to-date information, enabling better decision-making in a dynamic environment.
3D mapping and visualization: The development of 3D mapping and visualization capabilities can provide a more immersive experience for GIS users and improve their understanding of spatial data.
Mobile GIS: The development of mobile GIS capabilities can provide field workers with real-time access to spatial data, enabling them to make more informed decisions.
Big data processing: The processing of big data can provide GIS with a vast amount of data to analyze, which can lead to new insights and knowledge.
Interoperability: The development of standards and protocols for GIS interoperability can help overcome data incompatibility issues and facilitate data sharing between different GIS platforms.
Cybersecurity: The development of cybersecurity measures to protect sensitive spatial data from cyber attacks and data breaches.
Open-source GIS: The development of open-source GIS software can provide a more accessible and cost-effective solution for GIS users, especially for those in developing countries.
Overall, there are many areas where future works can be done in GIS, and these developments can enhance its capabilities and provide more value to users
In the past ten years, there is a rapid increase in the development of GIS field. Due to this growing interest, new applications will continue to present new challenges. Some of the challenges are: 1. New architectures –
- The existing advances that were made in RDBMSs and OODBMs and extended relational database technology helps in benefiting the client/server architecture. These client/server architecture is needed by GIS application.
- The entire nonspatial data is managed by DBMS after the separation of spatial from nonspatial data.
- As both types of data is evolved so calling for the appropriate modelling and integration takes place. Requirement for an appropriate tools is there for data transfer, workflow management and change management.
2. Data Sources –
- New methods for collecting data are introduced to the GIS community.
- Incorporation of the new aerial cameras, GPS and satellites is there, promptly and efficiently.
- Huge amounts of data is required to process LIDAR satellite.
- One of the constant challenge faced by the community is the merging of new technologies with different accuracies.
- The major database obstacle includes, the large amount of information which is introduced by some of the newest sources.
- The diversity of data sources results in the challenge of integration.
3. Generalization –
- Storage of data takes place in different levels of scale and accuracy by GIS systems.
- A certain level of accuracy and scale is demanded when a user retrieves information from the database. It may differ from the original stored data scale.
4. Mobile GIS –
- As we all know that now a days it is very common to carry a mobile devices that is holding geographical information.
- One of the major application area is receiving an online updates and querying a database while on the road.
- With the advent of GPS enabled cell phones, location-based applications are imminent. An extremely important topic will be Mobile GIS, with the major payoffs in research.
5. Data Models –
- Vector and Raster are the two commonly used data models.
- Today, GIS systems deal with only one model, which is a basically a major practical issue.
- There is a limitation of merging raster and vector data.
6. Modeling multiple aspects of GIS –
- In future, systems covering a wide range of functions- from market analysis and utilities to car navigation-will need boundary-oriented data and functionality.
- More area-oriented and terrain model data is require for the applications in environmental science, hydrology and agriculture.
- It is not clear that a single general purpose GIS can supports all these functionalities or not.
7. Standards –
- The GIS community needs to enforce global or at least national standards.
- Private and public sectors basically addresses, considers and uses the recommendations of ISO, OGC, and FDGC.
- Sharing of the better information among the different organizations around the world is there.
- The currently debating relevant issues are: The International Standardization Body and the European Standards Body.
8. Common Notation –
- Proposed tools and systems in GIS should also be intuitive and have easy-to-use notation.
- Since ISO/TC 211 and OGC adapted UML for spatial classes modelling , an extension to UML that handles geographic objects should be considered.
Geographic Information System
A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer-based tool for storing, manipulating, analyzing, and visualizing geographically-referenced data. It allows users to create, edit, analyze, and display maps that contain various types of data, such as topography, land use, population, climate, and infrastructure. GIS technology uses spatial and non-spatial data to help organizations make informed decisions, solve problems, and optimize resource allocation.
GIS combines different types of information, such as satellite imagery, aerial photographs, and survey data, into a single system, which makes it possible to see relationships, patterns, and trends that may not be apparent otherwise. For example, a GIS can help a city plan for new roads and infrastructure by analyzing traffic patterns and population density. It can also be used to track the spread of diseases, manage natural resources, and identify potential hazards.
GIS technology is used in a wide range of fields, including urban planning, environmental management, agriculture, public health, transportation, and business. It has become an essential tool for decision-makers who need to visualize and analyze data in a geographic context.
Advantages of GIS:
Better decision-making: GIS allows users to analyze and visualize data in a spatial context, which can lead to more informed decisions and better outcomes.
Increased efficiency: GIS can automate repetitive tasks, such as data entry and mapping, which can save time and reduce errors.
Improved communication: GIS can help communicate complex data in a way that is easy to understand, which can facilitate collaboration among stakeholders.
Greater accuracy: GIS technology can improve the accuracy of data by eliminating errors and inconsistencies that can occur with manual data entry.
Integration with other systems: GIS can integrate with other systems, such as databases and enterprise software, which can help organizations streamline their operations.
Disadvantages of GIS:
High costs: The implementation and maintenance of GIS can be expensive, especially for smaller organizations.
Complexity: GIS technology can be complex and require specialized knowledge and training to use effectively.
Data quality: The accuracy and completeness of data used in GIS can be a challenge, especially if the data is collected from multiple sources.
Privacy concerns: GIS can raise privacy concerns if sensitive information, such as individual addresses or health records, is included in the data.
Dependence on technology: Organizations may become overly reliant on GIS technology, which can lead to problems if the technology fails or becomes obsolete.