In the past ten years, there is a rapid increase in the development of GIS field. Due to this growing interest, new applications will continue to present new challenges. Some of the challenges are:
1. New architectures –
- The existing advances that were made in RDBMSs and OODBMs and extended relational database technology helps in benefiting the client/server architecture. These client/server architecture is needed by GIS application.
- The entire nonspatial data is managed by DBMS after the separation of spatial from nonspatial data.
- As both types of data is evolved so calling for the appropriate modelling and integration takes place.
Requirement for an appropriate tools is there for data transfer, workflow management and change management.
2. Data Sources –
- New methods for collecting data are introduced to the GIS community.
- Incorporation of the new aerial cameras, GPS and satellites is there, promptly and efficiently.
- Huge amounts of data is required to process LIDAR satellite.
- One of the constant challenge faced by the community is the merging of new technologies with different accuracies.
- The major database obstacle includes, the large amount of information which is introduced by some of the newest sources.
- The diversity of data sources results in the challenge of integration.
3. Generalization –
- Storage of data takes place in different levels of scale and accuracy by GIS systems.
- A certain level of accuracy and scale is demanded when a user retrieves information from the database. It may differ from the original stored data scale.
4. Mobile GIS –
- As we all know that now a days it is very common to carry a mobile devices that is holding geographical information.
- One of the major application area is receiving an online updates and quering a database while on the road.
- With the advent of GPS enabled cell phones, location-based applications are imminent.
An extremely important topic will be Mobile GIS, with the major payoffs in research.
5. Data Models –
- Vector and Raster are the two commonly used data models.
- Today, GIS systems deal with only one model, which is a basically a major practical issue.
- There is a limitation of merging raster and vector data.
6. Modeling multiple aspects of GIS –
- In future, systems covering a wide range of functions- from market analysis and utilities to car navigation-will need boundary-oriented data and functionality.
- More area-oriented and terrain model data is require for the applications in environmental science, hydrology and agriculture.
- It is not clear that a single general purpose GIS can supports all these functionalities or not.
7. Standards –
- The GIS community needs to enforce global or at least national standards.
- Private and public sectors basically addresses, considers and uses the recommendations of ISO, OGC, and FDGC.
- Sharing of the better information among the different organizations around the world is there.
- The currently debating relevant issues are: The International Standardization Body and the European Standards Body.
8. Common Notation –
- Proposed tools and systems in GIS should also be intuitive and have easy-to-use notation.
- Since ISO/TC 211 and OGC adapted UML for spatial classes modelling , an extension to UML that handles geographic objects should be considered.
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- Functions of Distributed Database System
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- Extendible Hashing (Dynamic approach to DBMS)
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